Pyrpasopoulou A, Kotoula V, Cheva A, Hytiroglou P, et al. (2004):

This study examined the effect of the exposure of pregnant rats to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on their offspring. Pulsed GSM-like RFR (9.4 GHz) was used in the study because the resonant frequency of a rat is 10 times that of an average man. A low microwave power density of 5 µW/cm² was used, corresponding to a maximum SAR of 0.5 mW/kg. The rats were continuously exposed either during 1-3 days (when the embryo is being developed) or 4-7 days (when the organs are developing) post-coitum. The effects on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) in the kidneys of the newborn were studied. BMPs are proteins involved in development of the skeleton. They are also involved in other aspects of development, including that of the kidney.

It was found that in the newborns some of the BMPs studied showed significant increased levels, compared to sham-exposed newborns. Some of the BMPs were increased in those whose mothers had been exposed 1-3 days post-coitum, and others were increased in the 4-7 days p-c group. There was no effect on the structure of the kidneys of the newborn.

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