Kumlin T, Iivonen H, Miettinen P, Juvonen A, et al. (2007):

Kumlin et al. exposed Wistar rats for 2 hours a day, 5 days a week, from age 3 to 8 weeks, to RFR at 900 MHz frequency (similar to that from a GSM phone). The whole body average SAR was 0.3 or 3 W/kg. There were 24 rats in each of 3 groups - sham, low, or high exposure. Six rats in each group were perfused for immunohistology to determine possible changes in brain morphology, while the remaining 18 went through a battery of behavioral tests over 4 weeks. These tests were an open-field test for locomotor and exploratory behaviour, plus maze for anxiety, pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex test to test general reactivity and attention, and Morris water maze test for spatial learning and memory.

The only behavioural test to show a significant difference between RF- and sham-exposed groups was the Morris water maze test. In this the RF-exposed groups had improved learning and memory.

There were no degenerative changes, dying neurons, or effects on the leakage of the blood-brain barrier.

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