Kesari, K. K.; Kumar, S., and Behari, J. Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010 Oct; 48(10):987-92.


Some results from animal and human studies suggest that mobile phone exposure may have adverse effects on male fertility. In particular, negative effects on sperm counts, motility and structure, and on antioxidant enzyme levels were reported. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key enzyme regulating cellular responses to extracellular stimuli involved in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. A decrease in PKC level indicates an increase in apoptosis. PKC plays a role in a variety of pathologic states.


The study was aimed at investigating effects of mobile phone frequency radiation on sperm count, apoptosis and PKC activity in Wistar rats.


Twelve male Wistar rats were equally divided into two groups: sham-exposed and RF-exposed. RF exposure from a mobile phone was performed 2h a day for 35 days at SAR level of 0.9 W/kg.


A significant decline in sperm count, PKC activity, and a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells was observed in sperm samples of the RF-exposed group as compared to the sham-exposed group.

Interpretation and Conclusion
The authors suggest that the observed changes may have occurred due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by the mobile phone frequency exposure. This could trigger cell differentiation by affecting PKC and result in disturbances of spermatogenesis. The authors believe that the observed alterations “may have implications leading to infertility”.

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