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Meta-analysis of published case-control study evaluating long-term mobile phone use and risk of tumours.

Hardell and colleagues identified case-control studies on mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours (glioma and meningioma) and acoustic neuroma. The assessed overall odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use and also OR for use of more or equal to 10 years. They also analysed the ipsilateral use (same side as tumour) and contralateral use. Their results are based on 10 studies (glioma), 9 studies (acoustic neuroma) and 7 studies (meningioma). The authors conclude only ipsilateral glioma and acoustic neuroma both with a latency period of more or equal to 10 years provide consistent evidence of an association with mobile phone use.

Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Hansson Mild K. (2008): Meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and the association with brain tumours.  Int J Oncol. 32(5):1097-103.

For more see “Research – epidemiological – cell phone studies
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Study using a dosimeter to measure mobile phone frequencies did not find any significant association from EMF exposure and chronic or acute symptoms.

This study assessed the association between exposure from mobile phones and well-being in adults. A total of 329 subjects used a personal dosimeter and exposure from three mobile phone frequencies was measured over 24 hours. Results are presented as a mean percentage of the reference level from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Subjects self-reported daily acute symptoms in a diary and other chronic symptoms and confounders were determined during an interview. The results indicate exposure to mobile phone frequencies was well below the ICNIRP established limit. The authors did not find any statistically significant association between the measured exposure with the personal dosimeter and either chronic or acute symptoms.

Thomas S, Kühnlein A, Heinrich S, Praml G, Nowak D, von Kries R, Radon K. Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: A cross-sectional study based on dosimetry. Bioelectromagnetics. Ahead of print 4 April 2008.

For more see “Research – clinical – general” or “Research – exposure assessment
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Double blinded randomized study rejects the hypothesis UMTS radiation from mobile phone base stations affects cognitive function and symptoms.

Since there is public concern about radiofrequency (RF) exposure from mobile phone base stations and human cognitive function, a double blinded cross-over study was designed to assess the adverse health effects. Adults and adolescents were exposed to 4 scenarios including sham-exposure for each 45 minutes at a time. The Trail Making B (TMB) test was used to measure changes in cognitive function along with a questionnaire which assessed subjective symptoms. Results indicate no significant changes in cognitive performance nor in cognitive tasks occurred when subjects were exposed to either Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) base stations or sham-exposure. It was concluded that the performance on the TMB was not affected by UMTS exposure but the authors stated that the subjective symptoms related to RF exposure should be clarified further.

Riddervold IS, Pedersen GF, Andersen NT, Pedersen AD, Andersen JB, Zachariae R, Mølhave L, Sigsgaard T, Kjærgaard SK. (2008). Cognitive function and symptoms in adults and adolescents in relation to rf radiation from UMTS base stations. Bioelectromagnetics 29(4);257-267.

For more see “Research – clinical – cognitive function
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Case-control study indicates possible cognitive and neurobiological changes in electromagnetic hypersensitive patients.

In order to properly address the existence of hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF), Landgrebe and colleagues planned a largest case-control study of hypersensitive patients. The objective was to study the pathophysiology of EMF hypersensitivity by determining cognitive correlates such as discrimination ability and neurobiological parameters. Participants were 89 cases and 107 controls all evaluated by standardized questionnaires for health status and EMF specific cognitions. Results showed that discrimination ability was reduced in cases but the perception of magnetic pulses was similar in both groups. Cases differed from controls for EMF-related cognitions. The authors concluded that their results show EMF hypersensitive patients demonstrate significant and neurobiological modifications.

Landgrebe M, Frick U, Hauser S, Langguth B, Rosner R, Hajak G, Eichhammer P. Cognitive and neurobiological alterations in electromagnetic hypersensitive patients: results of a case-control study. Psychol Med. Ahead of print 26 Mar 2008;1-11. doi:10.1017/S0033291708003097

For more see “Research – clinical – general
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Actual RF exposure not better detected than chance in subjects reporting symptoms from mobile phone use and non-symptomatic group.

Since past studies investigating physiological effect from mobile phone exposure are rather of low significance because of methodological problems, Hillert et al designed a double blind, cross-over provocation study to test 3 hours GSM exposure from mobile phones compared to sham-exposure with 71 subjects divided in 2 groups (symptom and non-symptom group). Each subject then responded whether they believed they were exposed to mobile phone waves or not. The authors indicate headache was reported more often following exposure to mobile phones than sham, but predominantly in the non-symptomatic group. That said, both groups could not predict exposure better than what chance would have predicted. The authors state a need to better describe individuals in such studies of mobile phone exposure who believe the presence of symptoms such as headache after mobile phone use.

Hillert L, Åkerstedt T, Lowden A, Wiholm C, Kuster N, Ebert S, Boutry C, Moffat SD, Berg M, Arnetz BB. (2008). The effects of 884 MHz GSM wireless communication signals on headache and other symptoms: An experimental provocation study. Bioelectromagnetics 29(3);185 – 196.

For more see “Research – clinical – general
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Brief and repeated GSM-900 mobile phone exposure does not affect psychomotor performance in humans.

Curcio and colleagues investigated how cumulative effect of GSM mobile phone exposure (specific absorption rate (SAR)= 0.5 W/Kg would alter psychomotor functions. Twenty-four participants took part in the study and they were all exposed to 3 times to 15 minutes of GSM exposure. They were then tested on a simple reaction time test and finger tapping task. Results show that GSM-900 exposure did not affect psychomotor performance but the authors did notice a non-statistical trend to reduced reaction times. The authors conclude that possible cognitive effects by other radiofrequency field signals need to be investigated and cannot be ruled out.

Curcio G, Valentini E, Moroni F, Ferrara M, De Gennaro L, Bertini M. (2008). Psychomotor performance is not influenced by brief repeated exposures to mobile phones. Bioelectromagnetics 29(4);237-241.

For more see “Research – clinical – cognitive function
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Comment by Loughran et al.

Loughran SP, McKenzie RJ, Anderson V, McIntosh RL, Croft RJ. (2008). Comment Dosimetric evaluation and comparison of different RF exposure apparatuses used in human volunteer studies Bioelectromagnetics 29(3);242 – 243.

For more see “Research – exposure assessment

No effect on human spermatozoa parameters from 900 MHz GSM radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.0 W/kg.

Falzone et al assessed whether human spermatozoa exposed to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiofrequency at 2 SAR levels (2.0 & 5.7 W/Kg) would results in changes in key parameters when compared to control samples of sperm. Mitochondrial membrane potential and sperm motility were both analyzed for changes. The lower SAR level of 2.0 W/kg did not affect any sperm parameters analyzed but the higher exposure of 5.7 W/Kg significantly altered two other parameters. The authors mention that this significant result should not be attributable to thermal effects since cooling methods were employed during the experiment.

Falzone N, Huyser C, Fourie F, Toivo T , Leszczynski D, Franken D. (2008). In vitro effect of pulsed 900 MHz GSM radiation on mitochondrial membrane potential and motility of human spermatozoa. Bioelectromagnetics 29(4);268-276.

For more see “Research – clinical – other – reproduction
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Determination of efficiency of in vitro dosimetric assessment of specific absorption rate (SAR) at 900 MHz in cell cultures.

The objective of this exposure assessment study was to evaluated the efficiency of an irradiation device (waveguide chamber) when used for in vitro cell exposure. Two cell cultures were used; 8 ml and 15 ml where SAR distribution was assessed in each case on cell layer and cell suspension. The exposure configuration in this experiment, electric field parallel to the sample, the efficiency (ratio of power absorbed by the sample and the incident power) and the non-uniformity degree (ratio of the standard deviation of SAR values and the average SAR over the sample) are presented. For the 15 ml cell culture sample, efficiency was 0.40 and non-uniformity was 39% while it was 0.19 and 15%, respectively for the 8 ml sample.

De Prisco G, d'Ambrosio G, Calabrese ML, Massa R, Juutilainen J. SAR and efficiency evaluation of a 900 MHz waveguide chamber for cell exposure. Bioelectromagnetics Ahead of print 31 March 2008.

For more see “Research – exposure assessment
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Variability of body models for adults and children used in dosimetry studies.

The authors evaluated six adult models used to prepare children’s model. They used the finite-difference time-domain method to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) from 20 MHz to 2.4 GHz. The results obtained from this study indicate variability of adult models with a standard deviation (SD) of up to 40% in adult models. The children models assessed in the current study produced whole-body-averaged SAR over the safety limit by close to 40%.

Conil E, Hadjem A, Lacroux F, Wong MF, Wiart J (2008). Variability analysis of SAR from 20 MHz to 2.4 GHz for different adult and child models using finite-difference time-domain. Phys Med Biol. 53(6);1511-25.

For more see “Research – exposure assessment
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GSM 900 exposure of human skin in an experimental setup to assess uncertainty and variation.

This study evaluated the setup and dosimetry used when exposing human skin from 10 volunteers to radiofrequency fields of 900 MHz. Each participant received 1-hour exposure to their forearm which biopsies were collected for protein analysis. Results of the experiment indicate an average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.3W/Kg and uncertainty of 20% in the biopsy. The authors listed as uncertainty factors; variations in the distance of the forearm from the dipole (source of exposure); variations of the fat layer and arm thickness; and uncertainty of radiofrequency power measurement.

Toivonen T, Toivo T, Puranen L, Jokela K. (2008). Setup and dosimetry for exposure of human skin in vivo to RF-EMF at 900 MHz. Bioelectromagnetics 29(3);207-212.

For more see “Research – exposure assessment
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Effect of radiofrequency fields (RF) from mobile phones on level of melatonin and changes in body weight of hamsters.

The objective of the experiment was to determine whether RF at 383, 900, and 1800 MHz from mobile phones would affect pineal and melatonin levels and increase in body weight in hamsters. In each test for the three radiofrequency, 120 hamsters in each group (exposed and sham-exposed) were used. Results of all experiments indicate no effect in pineal and melatonin levels, but changes in body weight close to 4% for 383MHz exposure and 6% for 900 MHz (no changes for 1800 MHz). It was concluded, that melatonin levels were not affected by RF but the data obtained in this study support the hypothesis that RF energy absorbed by the body could produce metabolic alterations such as a gain in body weight.

Lerchl A, Krüger H, Niehaus M, Streckert JR, Bitz AK, Hansen V (2008). Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields at nonthermal SAR values on melatonin and body weight of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). J Pineal Res. 44(3):267-72.

For more see “Research – laboratory – other – hormone studies
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Study finds no induction of genotoxic effects from UMTS intermittent exposure of human lymphocytes.

Zeni and colleagues investigated the effect of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) to induce genotoxic effect in human leukocytes. The study was designed to collect blood from six individuals and exposed cells to intermittent exposures for 24-68 hours at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.2 W/kg in different stages of cell cycle. The results do not show any induction of either an increase in micronucleated cells nor changes in cell cycle kinetics. Intermittent exposures of 24 hours did not affect DNA structure of human leukocytes when assessed immediately after the RF exposures.

Zeni O, Schiavoni A, Perrotta A, Forigo D,  Deplano M, Scarfi MR. (2008). Evaluation of genotoxic effects in human leukocytes after in vitro exposure to 1950 MHz UMTS radiofrequency field. Bioelectromagnetics 29(3);177-184.

For more see “Research – laboratory – cancer studies
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Cognitive functions such as memory affected by GSM-900 mobile phone exposure in rat model.

The authors investigated whether long-term GSM 900 MHz radiofrequency (RF) could alter cognitive functions in a rat model. Exposed rats received 2 hours each week (total 55 weeks) RF radiation (SAR: 0.6 & 60 mW/Kg) while control rats were sham-exposed. Results indicate RF had no effect on exploratory behaviours but a significant difference (p=0.02) was observed for results of the memory test including objects and temporal order of presentation but not place of object.

Nittby H, Grafström G, Tian DP, Malmgren L, Brun A, Persson BRR, Salford LG, Eberhardt J. (2008). Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 29(3):219-232.

For more see “Research – clinical – cognitive function
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Study finds no consistent suggestion that GSM 1800 MHz exposure modulates gene expression in mice brain.

The current study looked at the potential effects of radiofrequency waves from GSM 1800 MHz on the gene expression in the brain of mice. Whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) used in the experiment was 1.1 W/kg for a duration of 1 hour equivalent to whole brain SAR of 0.2 W/Kg. The main result was that no significant difference in the modulation of gene expression was observed between exposed and sham-exposed mice. Some modulation of genes did occur when lower constraints were used for the microarray analyses but the results were not confirmed by real-time PCR.

Paparini A, Rossi P, Gianfranceschi G, Brugaletta V, Falsaperla R, De Luca P, Romano Spica V. (2008). No evidence of major transcriptional changes in the brain of mice exposed to 1800 MHz GSM signal Bioelectromagnetics 29(4);312-323.

For more see “Research – laboratory – cancer studies
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Systematic review of radiofrequency fields exposure and health effects.

The present paper is a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications prior to August 2007. The objective was to find out symptoms caused by daily RF exposure, and determine whether humans can detect RF below the ICNIRP guidelines. Results from studies were pooled in order to assess if individuals can determine real form sham exposure. The RF exposure detection rate by self-declared hypersensitive people (EHS) was only 4.2% higher than what could be expected by chance. This review provides evidence that (1)EHS people are not better than others to determine RF exposure; (2) short-term exposure to a mobile phone or base station causes symptoms. It was concluded that most individuals who think they are able to detect low level RF-EMF do not perform well under double-blind conditions.

Röösli M. Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure and non-specific symptoms of ill health: A systematic review. Environ Res. Ahead of print 20 Mar 2008.

For more see “Research – clinical – general
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Review of lymphoma and mobile phone radiation in mice.

Lin reviews studies which investigated the incidence of tumours in mice that were exposed to GSM mobile phone radiation. He discusses methodological issues and also how others studies compare to the original study of Repacholi et al (1997).

Lin JC (2008): Tumor incidence studies in lymphoma-prone mice exposed to GSM mobile-phone radiation. Radio Sci Bull 324;41-44.

For more see “Research – laboratory – cancer studies”
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Leitgeb N (2008). Mobile phones: are children at higher risk? WMW Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 158(1-2);36-41.

For more see “Research – epidemiological – cell phone studies”
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O'Carroll MJ, Henshaw DL (2008). Aggregating Disparate Epidemiological Evidence: Comparing Two Seminal EMF Reviews. Risk Anal 28(1);225-34.

For more see “Research – epidemiological
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International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. (2008). ICNIRP STATEMENT ON EMF-EMITTING NEW TECHNOLOGIES. Health Phys. 94(4);376-392.

For more see “Research programs
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