Borbely AA, Huber R, Graf T, Fuchs B, et al.

Twenty four young men took part in this experiment, which consisted of two sessions at an interval of one week. In each session an adaptation night was followed by an experimental night. In the latter the men were either exposed to EMF (field exposure night) or not (sham exposure night). The exposure was randomised. The EMF was a pseudo GSM signal of 900 MHz modulated with frequencies similar to those used by handsets and base stations. The EMF was turned on and off automatically at 15 minute intervals starting with the on condition at lights off. Maximum SAR was calculated to be 1 W/Kg, which is greater than the limits of Safety Code 6. Electroencephalography and other electric recordings of body function were made.

As a result of exposure to EMF, the authors found the duration of time spent awake during the night after first falling asleep was reduced from 18.2 to 12.1 minutes. However, this only occurred with the group that was sham exposed in the first experimental night. The authors consider that "EMF exposure counteracts the mild sleep disturbance that may have been caused by the unfamiliar experimental set-up during the first experimental night."

Spectral power of the electroencephalogram in non REM sleep was altered. The 15 minute on-off EMF cycles did not change this pattern.

These results contrast with some of the other papers discussed above. In Borbely's study, there was no affect on sleep latency or on the sleep states (although no details are given of time of sleep latency or of total duration of sleep). Borbely's group also did not detect EEG changes during REM sleep.

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