General biological and health effects:

Adey WR  (1993): Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. J Cell Biochem 51:410-416.

Agarwal A, Desai NR, Ruffoli R, Carpi A. (2008). Lifestyle and testicular dysfunction: A brief review. Biomed Pharmacother. 62(8):550-553.

Ahlbom A, Feychting M (2003): Electromagnetic radiation. British Medical Bulletin 68:157-165.

Balmori A. The incidence of electromagnetic pollution on wild mammals: A new “poison” with a slow effect on nature? The Environmentalist. Nov 28, 2009. Ahead of print.

Black DR, Heynick LN (2003): Radiofrequency (RF) effects on blood cells, cardiac, endocrine, and immunologic functions. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:187-195.

Blackman C. Cell phone radiation: Evidence from ELF and RF studies supporting more inclusive risk identification and assessment. Pathophysiology. Mar 3, 2009 Ahead of print.

Blettner M, Berg G (2000): Are mobile phones harmful? Acta Oncol 39:927-930.

British Medical Association: Board of Science and Education (2001): Mobile phones and Health: An interim report. BMA Publications Unit.

Carpenter DO, Sage C. 2008:  Setting prudent public health policy for electromagnetic field exposures Rev Environ Health. 23(2):91-117.

Challis L (2005): Mechanisms for interaction between RF fields and biological tissue. Bioelectromagnetics 26, Issue S7:98-106.

Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR). 2009. COMAR technical information statement: expert reviews on potential health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and comments on the bioinitiative report. Health Phys. 97(4): 348-356.

Cotgreave IA (2005): Biological stress responses to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation: are mobile phones really so (heat) shocking? Arch Biochem Biophys 435:227-40.

Elder JA (2003): Ocular effects of radiofrequency energy. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S148-161.

Elder JA, Chou CK (2003): Auditory response to pulsed radiofrequency energy. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S162-173.

Erdreich LS, Klauenberg BJ (2001): Radio frequency radiation exposure standards: considerations for harmonization. Health Physics 80:430-439.

Feychting M (2005): Non-cancer EMF effects related to children. Bioelectromagnetics 26, issue S7:S69-74.

Foster KR, Moulder JE (2000): Are mobile phones safe? IEEE Spectrum Online, August 2000;37 (8).

Gaestel M. Biological monitoring of non-thermal effects of mobile phone radiation: recent approaches and challenges. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. Dec 15, 2009 Ahead of print.

Gee D. Late Lessons from Early Warnings: Towards realism and precaution with EMF? Pathophysiology. May 21, 2009. Ahead of print.

Habash RWY, Brodsky LM, Leiss W, Krewski D, Repacholi M (2003): Health risks of electromagnetic fields. Part II: Evaluation and assessment of radio frequency radiation. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 31:197-254.

Habash RW, Elwood JM, Krewski D, Lotz WG, McNamee JP, Prato FS. (2009) Recent advances in research on radiofrequency fields and health: 2004-2007. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 12(4):250-88.

Hand JW (2008): Modelling the interaction of electromagnetic fields (10 MHz–10 GHz) with the human body: methods and applications. Phys. Med. Biol. 53:243-286.  

Hardell L, Sage C. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards. Biomed Pharmacother Dec 31 2007 Epub ahead of print.

Health Council of the Netherlands: ELF Electromagnetic Fields Committee (2001): Electromagnetic fields: Annual update 2001. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands, 2001; publication no. 2001/14.

Heynick LN, Merritt JH (2003): Radiofrequency fields and teratogenesis. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:174-186.

Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (2000): Mobile phones and health. c/o National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ.

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) (1996): Health issues related to the use of hand-held radiotelephones and base transmitters. Health Phys 70(4):587-593.

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) (1998): Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 Ghz). Health Phys 74:494-522.

Jauchem JR (1998): Health effects of microwave exposures: A review of the recent (1995-1998) literature. J Microwave Power Electromagn Energy 33:263-274.

Jauchem JR. Effects of low-level radio-frequency (3 kHz to 300 GHz) energy on human cardiovascular, reproductive, immune, and other systems: A review of the recent literature. Int J Hyg Environ Health. Epub ahead of print August 9, 2007

Johansson O. Disturbance of the immune system by electromagnetic fields—A potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment. Pathophysiology. April 23, 2009. Ahead of print.

Juutilainen J, de Seze R (1998): Biological effects of amplitude-modulated radiofrequency radiation. Scand J Work Environ Health 24:245-54.

Kheifets L, Swanson J, Kandel S, Malloy TF. Risk Governance for Mobile Phones, Power Lines, and Other EMF Technologies. Risk Anal. Aug 17, 2010. Ahead of print.

Khurana VG, Hardell L, Everaert J, Bortkiewicz A, Carlberg M, Ahonen M. (2010). Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk from Mobile Phone Base Stations. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health. 16(3).

Krewski D, Glickman BW, Habash RW, Habbick B, et al. (2007): Recent advances in research on radiofrequency fields and health: 2001-2003. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 10:287-318.

Kovacic P, Somanathan R. Electromagnetic fields: mechanism, cell signaling, other bioprocesses, toxicity, radicals, antioxidants and beneficial effects. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. May 28, 2010.  Ahead of print.

Lin JC (2002): Health and safety associated with personal wireless telecommunication base stations. Radio Science Bulletin. No 302 (Sept): 50-53.

Lin JC (2002): The auditory perception and hearing of microwaves. Radio Science Bulletin. No 303 (Dec): 50-53.

Lin JC (2003): Children and the risk of mobile telecommunication. Radio Science Bulletin. No 305 (June): 46-49.

Lin JC (2003): Lens opacification and radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Radio Science Bulletin. No 305 (September): 51-54.

Lin JC (2004): Current standards and their bases for safe human exposure to radio-frequency radiation. Radio Science Bulletin 309:50-52.

Masley ML, Habbick BF, Spitzer WO, Stuchly MA (1999): Are wireless phones safe? A review of the issue. Can J Public Health 90:325-9.

McKinney P(2005): Central nervous system tumours in children: Review of the epidemiologic evidence. Bioelectromagnetics 26, Issue S7:60-68.

O'Connor ME (1999): Intrauterine effects in animals exposed to radiofrequency and microwave fields. Teratology 59:287-291.

Repacholi MH (1998): Low-level exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: Health effects and research needs. Bioelectromagnetics 19:1-19.

Repacholi MH (2001): Health risks from the use of mobile phones. Toxicology Letters 120:323-331.

Röösli M. Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure and non-specific symptoms of ill health: A systematic review. Environ Res. Ahead of print 20 Mar 2008.

Royal Society of Canada (1999): A review of the potential health risks of radiofrequency fields from wireless telecommunication devices. Expert Panel Report. ISBN 920064-68-X.

Rubin GJ, Das Munshi J, Wessely S (2005): Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: a systematic review of provocation studies. Psychosom Med 67:224-232.

Rubin GJ, Nieto-Hernandez R, Wessely S. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (formerly 'electromagnetic hypersensitivity'): An updated systematic review of provocation studies. Bioelectromagnetics. Aug 13, 2009. Ahead of print.

Sage C, Carpenter DO. Public health implications of wireless technologies. Pathophysiology. Mar 14, 2009 Ahead of print.

Sienkiewicz Z (1998): Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation. J Radiol Prot 18:185-93.

Stam R. Electromagnetic fields and the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res Rev. Jun 12, 2010. Ahead of print.

Stuchly MA (1998): Biomedical concerns in wireless communications. Crit Rev Biomed Engineering 26:117-151.

 Swicord ML, Morrissey JJ (1998): In vivo laboratory experiments related to cellular telephone communications. Motorola updated version of a paper previously presented at “The Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine”, Bologna, Italy, June 1997.

van Rongen E, Roubos EW, van Aernsbergen LM, Brussaard G, et al. (2004): Mobile phones and children: Is precaution warranted? Bioelectromagnetics 25:142-144.

Verschaeve L, Maes A (1998): Genetic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects of radiofrequency fields. Mutation  Res 410:141-165.

Vignal R, Crouzier D, Dabouis V, Debouzy JC. (2009). Effects of mobile phones and radar radiofrequencies on the eye Pathol Biol. 57(6):503-8.

Yu Y, Yao K. (2010). Non-thermal cellular effects of lowpower microwave radiation on the lens and lens epithelial cells. J Int Med Res. 38(3):729-36.

Ziskin MC (2002): Medical aspects of radiofrequency radiation overexposure. Health Physics 82:387-391.

Ziskin M (2002): Electromagnetic hypersensitivity - a COMAR technical information statement. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Sept/Oct;173-175.

Zur Nieden A, Dietz C, Eikmann T, Kiefer J, Herr CE. Physicians appeals on the dangers of mobile communication – what is the evidence? Assessment of public health data. Int J Hyg Environ Health. Ahead of print. Sep 5, 2009.


Ahlbom A, Green A, Kheifets L, Savitz D, Swerdlow A (2004): Epidemiology of health effects of radiofrequency exposure. Environ Health Perspect 112:1741-1754.

Ahlbom A, Feychting M, Lonn S (2005). Mobile phones and tumor risk: Interpretation of recent results. Radio Science Bulletin 314:30-33.

Ahlbom A, Feychting M, Green A, Kheifets L, Savitz DA, Swerdlow AJ, ICNIRP (International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) Standing Committee on Epidemiology. Epidemiologic evidence on mobile phones and tumor risk: a review. Epidemiology 20(5):639-652.

Boice JD, Morrissey JJ (1998): Epidemiologic studies related to cellular telephone communications. Motorola updated version of a paper previously presented at “The Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine”, Bologna, Italy, June 1997.

Boice JD, McLaughlin JK. Epidemiologic studies of cellular telephones and cancer risk - a review. Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, 2002.

Croft RJ, McKenzie RJ, Inyang I, Benke GP, Anderson V, Abramson MJ. (2008). Mobile phones and brain tumours: a review of epidemiological research. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 31(4):255-67.

Elwood JM (1999): A critical review of epidemiologic studies of radiofrequency exposure and human cancers. Environ Health Perspect 107 (Supplement 1):155-168.

Elwood ME (2003): Epidemiological studies of radio frequency exposures and human cancer. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S63-73.

Goldsmith JR (1997): Epidemiologic evidence relevant to radar (microwave) effects. Environ Health Perspect 105:1579-87.

Hardell LO, Carlberg M, Söderquist F, Hansson Mild K, et al. (2007): Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours - increased risk associated with use for > 10 years. Occup Environ Med published online 4 Apr 2007; doi:10.1136/oem.2006.029751

House R (1999): Radiofrequency radiation exposure and other environmental concerns. CMAJ 160:1318-9.

Kan P, Simonsen SE, Lyon JL, Kestle JRW (2007): Cellular phone use and brain tumor: a meta-analysis. J Neurooncol DOI 10.1007/s11060-007-9432-1

Kundi M, Mild K, Hardell L, Mattson M-O (2004): Mobile telephones and cancer - a review of epidemiological evidence. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B 7:351-384.

Kundi M. The controversy about a possible relationship between mobile phone use and cancer. Environ Health Perspect Ahead of print 26 Sep 2008.

Kundi M, Hutter HP. Mobile phone base stations – Effects on wellbeing and health. Pathophysiology. Mar 2, 2009. Ahead of print.

Lin JC (2005). Mobile phone use and benign tumors of the auditory nerve. Radio Science Bulletin 312:73-74.

Lahkola A, Tokola K, Auvinen A (2006): Meta-analysis of mobile phone use and intracranial tumours. Scand J Work Environ Health 32:171-177.

Lin JC (2007): Mobile phone use and malignant central nervous system tumours. Radio Science Bulletin 320:48-49.

Morgan LL. Estimating the risk of brain tumors from cellphone use: Published case-control studies. Pathophysiology. 2009 Apr 6 Ahead or print.

Mild K H, Hardell L, Kundi M, Mattsson MO (2003): Mobile telephones and cancer: Is there really no evidence of an association? Int J Mol Med 12:67-72.

Neubauer G, Feychting M, Hamnerius Y, Kheifets L, et al. (2007): Feasibility of future epidemiological studies on possible health effects of mobile phone base stations. Bioelectromagnetics 28:224-230.

O'Carroll MJ, Henshaw DL (2008). Aggregating Disparate Epidemiological Evidence: Comparing Two Seminal EMF Reviews. Risk Anal 28(1);225-34.

Robert E (1999): Intrauterine effects of electromagnetic fields - (low frequency, mid-frequency RF, and microwave): Review of epidemiologic studies. Teratology 59:292-298.

Roberts NJ, Michaelson SM (1985): Epidemiological studies of human exposures to radiofrequency radiation. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 56:169-78.

Röösli M, Frei P, Mohler E & Hug K. Systematic review on the health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. October 5th, 2010. Ahead of print. BLT.09.071852

Samkange-Zeeb F, Blettner M. (2009). Emerging aspects of mobile phone use. Emerging Health Threats Journal. 2:e5.

Savitz DA (1993): Epidemiologic studies of electric and magnetic fields and cancer: Strategies for extending knowledge. Environ Health Perspect 101(Suppl 4):83-91.

Schuz J, Lagorio S, Bersani F. Electromagnetic fields and epidemiology: an overview inspired by the fourth course at the International School of Bioelectromagnetics. Bioelectromagnetics. May 28, 2009 Ahead of print.

Swerdlow AJ (1999): Measurement of radiofrequency radiation exposure in epidemiological studies. Rad Prot Dosim 83:149-153.


Abdus-salam A, Elumelu T, Adenipekun A. (2008). Mobile phone radiation and the risk of cancer: A review. Afr J Med Med Sci 37(2):107-118.

Blank M. (2008): Protein and DNA Reactions Stimulated by Electromagnetic Fields Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 27(1):3-23.

Blank M, Goodman R. Electromagnetic fields stress living cells. Pathophysiology. Mar 5, 2009 Ahead of print.

Brusick D, Albertini R, McRee D, et al. (1998): Genotoxicity of radiofrequency radiation. Environ Mol Mut 32:1-16.

Calvente I, Fernandez MF, Villalba J, Olea N, Nuñez MI. Exposure to electromagnetic fields (non-ionizing radiation) and its relationship with childhood leukemia: A systematic review. Sci Total Environ. May 5, 2010 Ahead of print.

Desai NR, Kesari KK, Agarwal A. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 7(1):114. Oct 22, 2009. Ahead of print.

Elder JA (2003): Survival and cancer in laboratory mammals exposed to readiofrequency energy. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S101-106.

Elwood JM (1999): A critical review of epidemiologic studies of radiofrequency exposure and human cancers. Environ Health Perspect 107 (Supplement 1):155-168.

Elwood ME (2003): Epidemiological studies of radio frequency exposures and human cancer. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S63-73.

Heynick LN, Johnston SA, Mason PA (2003): Radio frequency electromagnetic fields: Cancer, mutagenesis, and genotoxicity. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S74-100.

Jauchem JR. (2003): A literature review of medical side effects from radio-frequency energy in the human environment: involving cancer, tumours, and problems of the central nervous system. J Microw Power Electromagn Energy 38:103-123.

Kheifets L and Oksuzyan S. Exposure assessment and other challenges in non-ionising radiation studies of childhood leukaemia. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Ahead of print Oct 21, 2008. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncn260.

Kohli DR, Sachdev A, Vats HS.  (2009): Cell phones and tumor: Still in no man’s land. Indian J Cancer. 46(1):5-12.

Kundi M (2004): Mobile phone use and cancer. Occup Environ Med 61:560-570.

Leitgeb N (2008): Mobile phones: are children at higher risk? WMW Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 158(1-2);36-41.

Lin JC (2003): Mobile-phone radiation effects on cancers in mice. Radio Science Bulletin. No 304 (March): 59-62.

Lin JC (2008): Tumor incidence studies in lymphoma-prone mice exposed to GSM mobile-phone radiation. Radio Sci Bull 324;41-44.

Meltz M (2003): Radiofrequency exposure and mammalian cell toxicity, genotoxicity, and transformation. . Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:196-213.

Moulder JE, Erdreich LS, Malyapa RS, et al. (1999): Cell phones and cancer: what is the evidence for a connection? Rad Res 151:513-531.

Moulder JE, Foster KR, Erdreich LS, McNamee JP. Mobile phones, mobile phone base stations and cancer: a review. Int J Radiat Biol 2005;81:189-203.

National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) (1992): Electromagnetic fields and the risk of cancer: Report of an Advisory Group on Non-ionizing Radiation. United Kingdom: NRPB Doc.  NRPB 3; No. 1: 1-138.
Otto M, Ernst von Mühlendahl K. (2007): Electromagnetic fields (EMF): Do they play a role in children's environmental health (CEH)? Int J Hyg Enviro Health 10;635-644.

Phillips JL, Singh NP, Lai H. Electromagnetic fields and DNA damage. Mar 4, 2009 Ahead of print.

Repacholi MH (1997): Radiofrequency field exposure and cancer: What do the laboratory studies suggest? Environ Health Perspect 105 (Suppl 6): 1565-8.

Ruediger HG. Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Pathophysiology.  Mar 13, 2009 Ahead of print.

Savitz DA (1993): Epidemiologic studies of electric and magnetic fields and cancer: Strategies for extending knowledge. Environ Health Perspect 101 (Suppl 4):83-91.

Schüz J and Ahlbom A. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of childhood leukaemia: A review. Radiation Protection Dosimetry Ahead of print Oct 16, 2008 doi:10.1093/rpd/ncn270.

Valberg PA (1996): Radiofrequency radiation (RFR): the nature of exposure and carcinogenic potential. Cancer Causes and Control 8:323-332.

Verschaeve L. (1995): Can non-ionising radiation cause cancer? The Cancer Journal 8 (5).

Verschaeve L. Genetic effects of radiofrequency radiation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2005;207 (Suppl 2):336-341.

Verschaeve L, Juutilainen J, Lagroye I, Miyakoshi J, Saunders R, de Seze R, Tenforde T, van Rongen E, Veyret B, Xu Z. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of radiofrequency fields. Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research. Oct 15, 2010. Ahead of print.

Vijayalaxmi, Obe G (2005): Controversial cytogenetic observations in mammalian somatic cells exposed to radiofrequency radiation. Radiat Res 163:481-96

VIjayalaxmi, Prihoda TJ. (2008). Genetic damage in mammalian somatic cells exposed to radiofrequency radiation: a meta-analysis of data from 63 publications (1990-2005). Radiat Res.169(5):561-74.

Behaviour Nervous System:

Barth A, Winker R, Ponocny-Seliger E, Mayrhofer W, et al. (2007): A meta-analysis for neurobehavioral effects due to electromagnetic field exposure emitted by GSM mobile phones. Occup Environ Med online 10 Oct 2007. Doi:10.1136/oem.2006.031450

Bayazit V, Bayram B, Pala Z, Atan O. (2010). Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 10(3):245-50.

Cook CM, Thomas AW, Prato FS (2002): Human electrophysiological and cognitive effects of exposure to ELF magnetic and ELF modulated RF and microwave fields: A review of recent studies. Bioelectromagnetics 23:144-157.

Cook CM, Saucier DM, Thomas AW, Prato FS (2006): Exposure to ELF and ELF-modulated radiofrequency fields: The time course of physiological and cognitive effects observed in recent studies (2001-2005). Bioelectromagnetics 27:613-627.

D'Andrea J (1999): Behavioral evaluation of microwave irradiation. Bioelectromagnetics 20:64-74.

D'Andrea JA, Adair E, de Lorge JO (2003): Behavioral and cognitive effects of microwave exposure. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S39-62.

D'Andrea JA, Chou CK, Johnston SA, Adair ER (2003): Microwave effects on the nervous system. Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S107-147.

Hamblin DL, Wood AW (2002): Effects of mobile phone emissions on human brain activity and sleep variables. Int J Radiat Biol 78:659-669.

Hermann DM, Hossmann K-A (1997): Neurological effects of microwave exposure related to mobile communication. J Neurol Sci 152:1-14.

Hossmann K-A, Hermann DM (2003): Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system. Bioelectromagnetics 24:49-62.

Lin JC (2004): Human electroencephalograms (EEG) and mobile-phone radiation. Radio Science Bulletin 308:52-54.

Lin JC. Mental process of children and mobile-phone electromagnetic fields. Radio Science Bulletin    2006;316: 42-44 (March ’06).

Marino AA, Carrubba S. (2009). The effects of mobile-phone electromagnetic fields on brain electrical activity: A critical analysis of the literature. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 28(3):250-274.

Sienkiewicz Z, Jones N, Bottomley A. Neurobehavioural effects of electromagnetic fields (2005): Bioelectromagnetics 26, issue S7:S116-126.

Valentini E, Corcio G, Moroni F, Ferrara M, et al. (2007): Neurophysiological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on humans: A comprehensive review. Bioelectromagnetics 28:415-432.

Valentini E, Ferrara M, Presaghi F, Gennaro LD, Curcio G. (2010). Systematic review and meta-analysis of psychomotor effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields. Occup Environ Med. 67(10):708-16.

van Rongen E, Croft R, Juutilainen J, Lagroye I, Miyakoshi J, Saunders R, de Seze R, Tenforde T, Verschaeve L, Veyret B, Xu Z. (2009)  Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the human nervous system. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 12(8):572-97.

Westerman R, Hocking B (2004): Diseases of modern living; neurological changes associated with mobile
phones and radiofrequency radiation in humans. Neuroscience letters 361:13-16.

Yakymenko I, Sidorik E. (2010). Risks of carcinogenesis from electromagnetic radiation of mobile telephony devices. Exp Oncol. 32(2):54-60.

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