Tice RR, et al. (2002).

The authors reported a number of experiments in this paper. Human blood cells were exposed to RF signals emitted by cellular telephones. The signals used in the different experiments were voice modulated 837 MHz from an analog signal generator or from a TDMA telephone, an 837 MHz generated by a CDMA telephone, and a voice modulated 1909.8 MHz generated by a GSM-PCS telephone. Cells were exposed for either 3 hours or 24 hours at average SARs that ranged from 1.0 to 10.0 W/kg. DNA damage was assessed in leukocytes, by examining for strand breaks or alkali labile sites. Chromosomal damage was assessed in lymphocytes by measuring the frequency of micronucleated cells.

Exposure for either 3 or 24 hours did not cause significant DNA damage. There was no increase in micronucleated cells with 3-hour exposure, but exposure for 24 hours to each of the four RF signals at an average SAR of either 5.0 or 10.0 W/kg resulted in a significant increase.

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