Reproductive Effects

Exposure to RF fields of sufficient intensity to cause thermal effects can cause reproductive effects (ICNIRP, 1998; UK Independent Expert Group, 2000). The power produced from mobile phones or their base stations, however, is far too low to cause such whole body heating. Studies demonstrate that there is no scientific evidence to suggest that exposure to radiofrequencies from mobile phones and base station antennae cause miscarriages or birth defects (Jensh 1997; Bornhausen 2000; Dasdag, 2000). In a comprehensive review, O'Connor (1999) stated:

" All studies in which effects have been observed have been above recommended maximum permissible exposure levels. Even at high levels, consistent morphological or organ abnormalities have not been reported".

In another review, Heynick and Merritt (2003) stated:

"In conclusion regarding experimental studies with nonhuman species, teratogenic effects can occur in both nonmammalian and mammalian subjects from RF EMF exposure, but only at levels that produce significant internal temperature rises. Such positive findings were consonant with those of experiments with various nonRFEMF heating modes."
Dasdag et al. (1999) found some changes in testicular function in rats exposed to 915 MHz at a SAR of 0.141 W/kg, although the rectal temperature of the affected rats was elevated. Another study by the same group, however, found no changes in testicular function in rats exposed to 900 MHz RF radiation for 20 minutes per day for one month (Dasdag, 2003). Yan (2007) reported that exposure of rats to RFR from a cell phone for 6 hours a day was associated with a higher incidence of sperm death and abnormal clumping of sperm cells.

Tofani et al. (1986) reported an increased miscarriage rate and reduced body weight in pregnant rats exposed to 27.12 MHz continuously during pregnancy.

Panagopoulos (2004) reported that exposure to a field from a GSM 900 MHz phone for 6 minutes daily for 5 days could decrease the reproductive capacity of the insect Drosophilia melanogaster.

References:

Authors
Agarwal A, Deepinder F, Sharma R, Ranga G, Li J.
Title
Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study.
Journal
Fertility and Sterility  May 4 2007 Epub ahead of print.

 

Authors
Bornhausen M, Scheingraber H (2000)
Title
Prenatal exposure to 900 MHz, cell-phone electromagnetic fields had no effect on operant-behavior performances of adult rats.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 21:566-574.
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Authors

Dasdag S, Ketani MA, Akdag Z, Ersay Ar, et al. (1999)
Title
Whole-body microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats.
Journal
Urol Res 27:219-223.
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Authors
Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Ayyildiz O, Demirtas OC, et al. (2000)
Title
Do cellular phones alter blood parameters and birth weight of rats?
Journal
Electro-and Magnetobiology 19:107-113
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Authors

Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Aksen F, Yilmaz F et al. (2003)
Title
Whole body exposure of rats to microwaves emitted from a cell phone does not affect the testes.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 24:182-188.
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Authors
De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ.
Title
Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro.
Journal
PLoS One. (2009). 4(7):e6446.

Authors
Falzone N, Huyser C, Becker P, Leszczynski D, Franken DR.
Title
The effect of pulsed 900-MHz GSM mobile phone radiation on the acrosome reaction, head morphometry and zona binding of human spermatozoa.
Journal
Int J Androl. Mar 7, 2010 Ahead of print.

Authors
Falzone N, Huyser C, Franken DR, Leszczynski D.
Title
Mobile Phone Radiation Does Not Induce Pro-apoptosis Effects in Human Spermatozoa.
Journal
Rad. Resear. May 17, 2010. Ahead of print.

Authors
Fragopoulou AF, Koussoulakos SL, Margaritis LH.
Title
Cranial and postcranial skeletal variations induced in mouse embryos by mobile phone radiation.
Journal
Pathophysiology. Oct 23, 2009. Ahead of print.

Author

Jensh RP (1997)
Title
Behavioral teratologic studies using microwave radiation: Is there an increased risk from exposure to cellular phones and microwave ovens?
Journal
Reproductive Toxicology 11:601-611
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Authors
Kumar S, Kesari KK, Behari J.
Title
Influence of microwave exposure on fertility of male rats.
Journal
Fertil Steril. Jun 17, 2010. Ahead of print.

Authors
Lee HJ, Lee JS, Pack JK, Choi HD, Kim N, Kim SH, Lee YS.
Title
Lack of teratogenicity after combined exposure of pregnant mice to CDMA and WCDMA radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.
Journal
Radiat Res. (2009). 172(5):648-52.

Authors
Lee HJ, Pack JK, Kim TH, Kim N, Choi SY, Lee JS, Kim SH, Lee YS.
Title
The lack of histological changes of CDMA cellular phone-based radio frequency on rat testis.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics. Jul 6, 2010. Ahead of print.

Authors
Lerchl A, Bornkessel C.
Title
Letter to the Editor on “Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult rabbit” by Salama et al
Journal
Int J Androl. Aug 10, 2009 Ahead of print.

Authors
Mailankot M, Kunnath AP, Jayalekshmi H, Koduru B, Valsalan R.
Title
Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats.
Journal
Clinics (Sao Paulo). (2009). 64(6):561-565.

Authors
Meo SA, Al-Drees AM, Husain S, Khan MM, Imran MB.
Title
Effects of mobile phone radiation on serum testosterone in Wistar albino rats.
Journal
Saudi Med J. (2010). 30(8):869-73.

Authors
Ogawa K, Nabae K, Wang J, Wake K, Watanabe SI, Kawabe M, Fujiwara O, Takahashi S, Ichihara T, Tamano S, Shirai T.
Title
Effects of gestational exposure to 1.95-GHz W-CDMA signals for IMT-2000 cellular phones: Lack of embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in rats.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics Ahead of print November 17, 20 DOI 08. 10.1002/bem.20456  

Author
Panagopoulos DJ, Karabarbounis A, Margaritis LH (2004)
Title
Effect of GSM 900-MHz mobile phone radiation on the reproductive capacity of Drosophilia
melanogaster.
Journal
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 23:29-43.
Go to summary>

Authors
Panagopoulos DJ, Margaritis LH.
Title
The identification of an intensity 'window' on the bioeffects of mobile telephony radiation.
Journal
Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 May;86(5):358-66.

Authors
Panagopoulos DJ, Margaritis LH.
Title
The effect of exposure duration on the biological activity of mobile telephony radiation.
Journal
Mutat Res. Apr 15, 2010 Ahead of print.

Authors
Panagopoulos DJ, Chavdoula ED, Margaritis LH.
Title
Bioeffects of mobile telephony radiation in relation to its intensity or distance from the antenna.
Journal
Int J Radiat Biol. (2010). 86(5):345-57.

Authors
Poulletier de Gannes F, Taxile M, Duleu S, Hurtier A, Haro E, Geffard M, Ruffié G, Billaudel B, Lévêque P, Dufour P, Lagroye I, Veyret B
Title
A Confirmation Study of Russian and Ukrainian Data on Effects of 2450 MHz Microwave Exposure on Immunological Processes and Teratology in Rats.
Journal
Rad Resear 2009.  172(5):617-624.

Authors
Salama N, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO.
Title
Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult rabbit.
Journal
Int J Androl. Dec 2 2008 Ahead of print.

Authors
Salama N, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO.
Title
Authors response on Letter to the Editor on “Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult Rabbit” by Salama et al.
Journal
Int J Androl. Aug 10, 2009 Ahead of print.

Authors
Salama N, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO, Kagawa S.
Title
The mobile phone decreases fructose but not citrate in rabbit semen: a longitudinal study.
Journal
Syst Biol Reprod Med. (2009).  55(5):181-187.

Authors
Salama N, Kishimoto T, Kanayama HO, Kagawa S.
Title
Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on sexual behavior in adult male rabbit: an observational study.
Journal
Int J Impot Res. Nov 26, 2009. Ahead of print.

Authors
Sambucci M, Laudisi F, Nasta F, Pinto R, Lodato R, Altavista P, Lovisolo GA, Marino C, Pioli C.
Title
Prenatal Exposure to Non-ionizing Radiation: Effects of WiFi Signals on Pregnancy Outcome, Peripheral B-Cell Compartment and Antibody Production.
Journal
Radiation Research. September 28, 2010. Ahead of print.

Authors
Sommer AM, Grote K, Reinhardt T, Streckert J, Hansen V, Lerchl A. (2009).
Title
Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (UMTS) on Reproduction and Development of Mice: A Multi-generation Study.
Journal
Radiat. Res. 171, 89–95.

Authors
Otitoloju AA, Obe IA, Adewale OA, Otubanjo OA, Osunkalu VO.
Title
Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from Global System for Mobile communication base stations.
Journal
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. Ahead of print. Oct 9, 2009.

Authors
Takahashi S, Imai N, Nabae K, Wake K, Kawai H, Wang J, Watanabe S, Kawabe M, Fujiwara O, Ogawa K, Tamano S, Shirai T.
Title
Lack of Adverse Effects of Whole-Body Exposure to a Mobile Telecommunication Electromagnetic Field on the Rat Fetus.
Journal
Radiat Res. Dec 23, 2009 Ahead of print.

Authors
Yan JG, Agresti M, Bruce T, Yan YH, et al. (2007):
Title
Effects of cellular phone emissions on sperm motility in rats.
Journal
Fertil Steril 88:957-964.
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