Other Studies - Cell Death (Apoptosis)

One study (Markkanen, 2004), using yeast cells, suggested that amplitude modulated RF fields, when used in conjunction with UV radiation, can affect the cell death process in these cells. . A study by Capri (2004a) failed to show any effect when 1800 MHz RFR was used, but another by the same authors (Capri 2004b) reported one marker of cell death increased in response to 900 MHz modulated RF fields. Two other markers in the same study, however, showed no effect. Belyaev (2005) failed to demonstrate apoptosis in lymphocytes subjected to 915 MHz radiation at 0.37 W/kg for 2 hours. Merola (2006) also found no evidence of apoptosis (or changes in proliferation) in neuroblastoma cells exposed to 900 MHz RFR for up to 72 hours, at a SAR of 1 W/kg. Joubert (2006) did not find any increase in apoptosis rate in neuroblastoma cells on exposure to RFR at 900 MHz for 24 hours. The same author did not find any evidence of apoptosis in rat cortical neurons exposed to GSM 900 MHz RFR for 1 hour (Joubert 2007). Lantow (2006) found no evidence of induction of cell death in human Mono Mac 6 cells exposed to RFR from an 1800 MHz GSM-DTX signal for 12 hours. Exposure of human glioblastoma and of human fibroblasts from fetal lung to RFR at 2.1425 GHz frequency and SARs up to 800 W/kg failed to produce p53-dependent apoptosis (Hirose 2006). Zhao (2007) reported that RFR exposure from a cell phone up-regulated several genes in cultured mouse neurons and astrocytes. They could not exclude a thermal effect. Chauhan (2007) found no change in apoptosis in TK6, HL60, or Mono-Mac-6 cells exposed to 1.9 GHz RFR for 6 hours at 0, 1, or 10 W/kg. Sanchez (2007) reported no effect on apoptosis of a 48-h GSM-1800 exposure at 2W/kg on skin cells.



Authors

Belyaev IY, Hillert L, Protopopova M, Tamm C, et al. (2005)
Title
915 MHz microwaves and 50 Hz magnetic field affect chromatin conformation and 53BPI foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 26:173-184.
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Authors

Capri M, Scarcella E, Bianchi E, Fumelli C, et al. (2004):
Title
1800 MHz radiofrequency (mobile phones, different Global System for Mobile Communication modulations) does not affect apoptosis and heat shock protein 70 level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young and old donors.
Journal
Int J Radiat Biol 80:389-397.
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Authors:
Capri M, Scarcella E, Fumelli C, Bianchi E, et al. (2004b)
Title:
In vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to 900 MHz CW and GSM modulated radiofrequency: studies of proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential.
Journal:
Radiation Research 162:211-218.
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Authors
Chauhan V, Mariampillai A, Kutzner BC, Wikins RC, et al. (2007)
Title
Evaluating the biological effects of intermittent 1.9 GHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency fields in a series of human-derived cell lines.
Journal
Radiat Res 167:87-93.

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Authors
Chavdoula ED, Panagopoulos DJ, Margaritis LH.
Title
Comparison of biological effects between continuous and intermittent exposure to GSM-900-MHz mobile phone radiation: Detection of apoptotic cell-death features.
Journal
Mutat Res. May 20, 2010. Ahead of print.

Authors
Eşmekaya MA, Seyhan N, Omeroğlu S.
Title
Pulse modulated 900 MHz radiation induces hypothyroidism and apoptosis in thyroid cells: A light, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical study.
Journal
Int J Radiat Biol. Sep 1, 2010. Ahead of print.

Authors
Hirose H, Sakuma N, Kaji N, Suhara T, et al. (2006)
Title
Phosphorylation and gene expression of p53 are not affected in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz band CW or W-CDMA modulated radiation allocated to mobile hone radio base stations.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 27:494-504.
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Authors

Joubert V, Leveque P, Rametti A, Collin A, et al. (2006)
Title
Microwave exposure of neuronal cells in vitro: study of apoptosis.
Journal
Int J Radiat Biol 82:267-275.
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Authors
Lantow M, Viergutz T, Weiss DG, Simko M. (2006)
Title
Comparative study of cell cycle kinetics and induction of apoptosis after exposure of human mono Mac 6 cells to radiofrequency radiation.
Journal
Radiat Res 166:539-543.
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Authors
Joubert V, Leveque P, Cueille M, Bourthoumieu S, et al. (2007)
Title
No apoptosis is induced in rat cortical neurons exposed to GSM phone fields.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 28:115-121.
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Authors
Markkanen A, Penttinen P, Naarala J, Pelkonen J, et al. (2004):
Title
Apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation is enhanced by amplitude modulated radiofrequency radiation in mutant yeast cells.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 25:127-133
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Authors
Merola P, Marino C, Lovisolo GA, Pinto R, et al. (2006)
Title
Proliferation and apoptosis in a neuroblastoma cell line exposed to 900 MHz modulated radiofrequency field.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 27:164-171.
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Authors
Moquet J, Ainsbury E, Bouffler S, Lloyd D.
Title
Exposure to low level GSM 935 MHz radiofrequency fields does not induce apoptosis in proliferating or differentiated murine neuroblastoma cells.
Journal
Radiat Prot Dosimetry Ahead of print 10 Jun 2008.

Authors
Palumbo R, Brescia F, Capasso D, Sannino A, Sarti M, Capri M, Grassilli E, Scarfi MR. (2008)
Title
Exposure to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation Induces Caspase 3 Activation in Proliferating Human Lymphocytes.
Journal
Radiat Res 170 (3): 327 – 334.



Authors
Sanchez S, Haro E, Ruffie G, Veyret B et al. (2007):
Title
In vitro study of the stress response of human skin cells to GSM-1800 mobile phone signals compared to UVB radiation and heat shock. 
Journal
Radiation Research 167:572-580.
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Authors
Zhao T-Z, Zou S-P, Knapp PE (2007):
Title
Exposure to cell phone radiation up-regulates apoptosis genes in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes.
Journal
Neuroscience letters 412:34-38.
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