Estudios que evalúan el uso del teléfono celular

A) Cáncer de cerebro (Glioma ± Meningioma, si no se declara lo contrario)


Dreyer (1999) – Mortality from brain cancer (cohort study)
Hardell (1999, 2000, 2002 a, b, 2003 a, b, 2005a,b, 2006a,b,c, 2007, 2008)
Inskip (2001)
Muscat (2000, 2002)
Auvinen (2002)
Christensen (2004)
Lonn (2004) – Neuroma Auditivo (Estudio entre teléfonos)
Lonn (2005) - Estudio entre teléfonos
Christensen (2005)
Schoemaker (2005) - Neuroma Auditivo (Estudio entre teléfonos)
Schoemaker (2009) – Pituitary tumors (Interphone study)
Hepworth (2006) - Estudio entre teléfonos
Schuz (2006a) - Estudio entre teléfonos

Schuz (2006d) – Danish cellular telephone users (cohort study)
Takebayashi (2006) - Neuroma Auditivo (Estudio entre teléfonos)           
Klaeboe (2007) - Estudio entre teléfonos
Lahkola (2006, 2007, 2008) - Estudio entre teléfonos

Schlehofer (2007) - Neuroma Auditivo (Estudio entre teléfonos)
Spinelli (2010) – Brain cancer and environmental and occupational risk factors
Hours (2007) - Estudio entre teléfonos
Mild (2007) - pooled analysis of 2 case-control studies
Takebayashi (2008) - Interphone study
Kan (2008) - meta-analysis of 9 case-control studies
Hartikka (2009) - case-case analysis of 99 gliomas

INTERPHONE STUDY GROUP (2010) – Combined results glioma and meningioma
 Inskip (2010) – Brain tumour incidence US

Cooke (2010) – adult leukemia

 

B) Otros cánceres

Johansen (2001) – Todos los cánceres
Johansen (2002) - Melanoma maligno del ojo
Warren (2003) – Tumor del nervio facial
Hardell (2004) – Tumor de la glándula salival
Lonn (2006) - Tumor de la glándula salival (Estudio entre teléfonos)
Linet (2006) - Linfoma no-Hodgkin
Schuz (2006b) – Todos los cánceres – teléfonos inalámbricos (Estudio entre teléfonos)
Schuz (2006d) - Danish cellular telephone users (cohort study)
Hardell (2007) – Tumor Testicular

Sadetzki (2008) - benign and malignant parotid gland tumours (Interphone study)
Stang (2009) - uveal melanoma

Kaufman (2009) adult leukemia

 

Tabla 1: La tabla debajo resume estos estudios (el de Johansen 2002, que fue un estudio ecológico, y aquellos que tratan exclusivamente el neuroma auditivo, se consideran en la Tabla 2): * indicates statistically significant odds ratio/risk estimates


Referencia

Tipo de estudio, población y tamaño de la muestra

Identificación del tipo de exposición

Tipo deCáncer

Estimados del riesgo
(95% CIs)

Dreyer 1999

Cohort
285,561

Records of 2 service providers in the US. Users of handheld MPs were compared with users of non-handheld MPs (considered as unexposed)

Mortality from brain cancer
Non-handheld

 

Handheld (<2min/day)
Handheld (>=2min/day)
Handheld (<=3years)
Handheld

(>3 years)

6 deaths in total

Standardized mortality rate 2 /100,000 PY (person-years)

3.7/100,000 PY

0 /100,000 PY

1.4 /100,000 PY

8.4/100,000 PY

Hardell 1999

Control de casos
209 casos
425 controles

Uso del celular
Entrevista telefónica

Tumor cerebral

0.98 (0.69-1.41)

Hardell 2000

Como arriba

 Como arriba + otras exposiciones

Tumores Temporo-parietal-occipital

2.62 (1.02-6.71) en el mismo lado en que usa el celular

Muscat 2000

Control de casos
469 casos
422 controles

Uso del celular
Entrevista

Tumor cerebral

0.85 (0.6-1.2)

Inskip 2001

Control de casos
782 casos (489 gliomas, 197 meningiomas)
799 controles

Uso del celular
Entrevista

Tumor cerebral
Gliomas
Meningiomas

 

1.0 (0.6-1.5)
1.0 (0.7-1.4)
0.8 (0.5-1.2)

 

Johansen
2001

Cohorte
420,095

Lista de suscriptores de celulares

Todos los cánceres
Tumor cerebral
Leucemia

0.89 (0.86-0.92)
0.95 (0.81-1.12)
0.97 (0.78-1.21)

Auvinen
2002

Control de casos
398 casos
5 controles por caso

Lista de suscriptores de celulares

Tumor cerebral
Glándula salival

1.3 (0.9-1.9)
1.3 (0.9-4.7)

Hardell 2002 a,b
2003 a,b

Control de casos
1303 parejas comparadas

Entrevista

Tumor cerebral
Temporal, en el mismo lado que usa el celular
Neuroma Auditivo

1.3* (1.02-1.6) - análogo
2.5* (1.3-4.9)

 

3.5* (1.8-6.8)

Warren 2003

Control de casos
18 casos
192 controles

Entrevista telefónica

Tumor del nervio facial Intratemporal

0.6 (0.2-1.9)

 

Hardell
2004

Control de casos
267 casos, 4 controles por caso

Cuestionario completado con entrevista telefónica

Tumor de la glándula salival

0.92 (0.58-1.44) - análogo
1.01 (0.68-1.50) - digital

Lonn 2005

Control de casos
371 gliomas
273 meningiomas
674 controles

Entrevista Personal, algunas por teléfono otras cuestionario escrito

Glioma
≥10 yrs

Meningioma
≥10 yrs

0.8 (0.6-1.0)
0.9 (0.5-1.6)

0.7* (0.5-0.9)
0.7 (0.3-1.6)

Christensen 2005

Control de casos
252 gliomas
175 meningiomas
822 controles

Entrevistas
Personales

Glioma
Meningioma

0.71 (0.50-1.01)
0.83 (0.54-1.28)

Hardell 2005

Control de casos
1429 casos
1470 controles

Cuestionario +
entrevista telefónica si necesario

Tumor cerebral (>10 años de  exposición)
áreas rurales
áreas urbanas

3.2* (1.2-8.4)
0.9 (0.6-1.4)

Hepworth
2006

Control de casos
966 casos
1716 controles

Entrevista Personal

Glioma
≥ 10 años

0.94 (0.78-1.13)
0.90 (0.63-1.28)

Hardell 2006b

Control de casos
359 casos
692 controles

Cuestionario +
entrevista telefónica si necesario

Tumor cerebral Malígno

2.6* (1.5-4.3) - análogo
1.9* (1.3-2.7) -digital
2.1* (1.4-3.0) - cordless

Schuz 2006

Control de casos
366 gliomas
381 meningiomas
Controles proporción 1:2

Entrevista Personal

Glioma
≥ 10 años (12 casos)
Meningioma

0.98 (0.74-1.29)
2.20 (0.94-5.11)

0.84 (0.62-1.13)

Hardell 2006c

Control de casos
905 casos
2162 controles

Cuestionario +
entrevista telefónica si necesario

Tumor cerebral Malígno, análisis multivariado por > 10 años de uso

1.9* (1.4-2.6)
análogo
1.9 (0.98-3.8)
digital
1.3 (0.8-2.0)
Cordless

Lahkola  2006

Meta-analysis of 12 studies, participants with > 5 years of MP use;
2780 intracranial tumors, including 1352 gliomas and 527 meningiomas

 

All cancers
Brain and NS
- men
- women

Glioma
Meningioma
Acoustic neuroma

0.98 (0.83-1.16)

0.96 (0.78-1.18)
0.87 (0.72-1.05)

Schuz 2006d

Cohorte
420,095 persons

Lista de suscriptores de celulares

Todos los cánceres
Tumor cerebral Neuroma auditivo

0.95* (0.93-0.97)
0.97
0.96 (0.87-1.05)
1.03 (0.82-1.26)
1.01 (0.89-1.14)
0.86 (0.67-1.09)

0.73 (0.50 – 1.03)

Klaeboe 2007

Control de casos
289 gliomas
207 meningiomas
358 controles

Entrevista Personal + entrevista telefónica si necesario

Glioma
≥ 6 años (55 casos
Meningioma

0.6 (0.4-0.9)
0.8 (0.5-1.2)

0.8 (0.5-1.1)

Lahkola 2007

Control de casos
1521 gliomas
3301 controles

Entrevista Personal + entrevista telefónica si necesario

Glioma uso regular
Ipsilateral ≥ 10 años

0.78 (0.7-0.9)

1.39 (1.01-1.92)

Hours 2007

Case control
96 glioma cases, 96 controls

145 meningioma cases, 145 controls
Personal interview

Glioma
Ipsilateral

Meningioma

1.15 (0.65-2.05)
1.15 (0.55-2.43)

0.74 (0.43-1.28)
Mild 2007

Pooled analysis of 2 case-control studies

 

Meningioma

Malignant brain tumours

>=10 years and >2000 hours

High-grade astrocytoma

analogue 1.05* (1.01-1.09)
analogue 1.08* (1.04-1.11)

analogue 9.6* (3.5-27)
digital 5.9* (1.01-34)

analogue 1.10* (1.06-1.14)
digital 1.11* (1.06-1.16)

Hardell 2007

Meta-analysis long-term MP users (>=10 years).

Gliomas – 2566, Meningiomas – 642 (long-and short term users)
 

Glioma

 

Meningioma

1.2 (0.8-1.9)
ipsilateral 2.0 (1.2-3.4)

1.3 (0.9-1.8)

ipsilateral 1.7 (0.99-3.1)
Hardell  2008 Updated meta-analysis (including studies published in 2007) of long –term MP users  

Glioma

 

Meningioma

1.2 (0.8-1.9)
ipsilateral 2.0* (1.2-3.4)

1.3 (0.9-1.8)

ipsilateral 1.7 (0.99-3.1)

Takebayashi

2008

Case-control

88 gliomas, 132 meningiomas, 102 pituitary adenomas

683 individually matched controls
Personal interviews

Glioma
>=10 years
ipsilateral

Meningioma
>=10 years
ipsilateral

Pituitary adenoma
>=10 years

1.22 (0.63-2.37)
0.58 (0.09-3.86)
1.24 (0.67-2.29)

0.70 (0.42-1.16)
1.35 (0.31-5.93)
1.14 (0.65-2.01)

0.90 (0.50-1.61)
1.15 (0.22-5.18)

No increasing trend for either tumour with an increase in mean maxSAR, cumulative maxSAR-year or maxSAR-hour
Kan 2008

Meta-analysis of 9 case-control studies;

5,259 cases of primary brain tumours and 12,074 controls
 

All primary brain tumours

Long term users (>=10 years)
Analogue
Digital
High-grade glioma
Low-grade glioma
Meningioma

0.90* (0.81-0.99)

 

1.25* (1.01-1.54)

1.13 (0.83-1.54)
0.86 (0.68-1.09)
0.86 (0.70-1.05)
1.14 (0.91-1.43)
0.64* (0.56-0.74)

Lahkola 2008 Case-control study of 1209 meningioma cases and 3299 population-based controls. Personal and telephone interview

Meningioma

Long-term users (>=10 years)

Cumulative hours of use >514

Analogue

Digital

0.76* (0.65, 0.89)

0.85 (0.57-1.26)

 

0.88 (0.68-1.13)

 

0.76* (0.58-0.98)
0.74* (0.63-0.87)

Hartikka 2009 Case-case analysis of 99 gliomas. Exposed cases – those with tumor mid-point within 4.6 cm from the most likely location of the MP; unexposed cases –distance >4.6 cm Personal interviews. Tumor location determined on the basis of CT or MRI imaging.

Glioma
Regular MP use
2-539 hr of MP use
>540 hr of MP use
Ipsilateral use
Contralateral use
0.5-5 years of use
>5 years of use

2.58 (0.65-10.26)
3.36 (0.84-13.42)
2.52 (0.45-13.93)
1.34 (0.26-6.20)
4.93* (1.13-21.46)
3.39 (0.83-13.76)
1.96 (0.38-10.17)

(reference - never/nonregular users)

Schoemaker 2009

Case-control of 291 cases of pituitary tumours and 630 controls Personal interview

Pituirary tumors
Overall
Long-term users
10 or more y after 1st use
10 or more years cumulative use
Highest quartile cumulative # of calls
Highest quartile of hours of use

Analog vs Digital
 

Schoemaker 2009

Case-control of 291 cases of pituitary tumours and 630 controls Personal interview

Pituirary tumors
Overall
Long-term users
10 or more y after 1st use
10 or more years cumulative use
Highest quartile cumulative # of calls
Highest quartile of hours of use

Analog vs Digital

0.9 (0.7-1.3)

1.0 (0.5-1.9)

1.1 (0.5-2.4)

1.2 (0.7-1.9)

1.1 (0.7-1.7)

No association

 


Neuroma audititvo:
Este es un tumor del nervio auditivo, y también se conoce como neurilemoma auditivo o schwannoma vestibular. Es un tumor benigno y tiene un crecimiento lento. Su incidencia está en el rango de 1 - 20 por millón de habitantes por año (Christensen  2004). Se manifiesta con la pérdida del oído, mareo, y zumbido en los oídos. Una serie de estudios han analizado la asociación entre este tumor y el uso del celular, estos estudios se resumen debajo. La mayoría presentan muy pocos casos que han utilizado el celular durante 10 años o más. El estudio de Hardell no es común porque reporta un incremento del riesgo en aquellos con > 5 años de uso.

Tabla 2: Estudios del Neuroma acústico
Odds Ratio (OR); ipsilateral use= MP use same side as tumour; contralateral use= MP use other side than tumour


Autor

# casos

OR cualquier uso

OR > 5 años

OR > 10 años

Comentario

Inskip 2001

96

0.8 (0.5-1.4)

 

 

Muy pocos casos con > 5 años de uso

Muscat 2002

90

0.9 (p=0.07)

 

 

De 3-6 años de uso (n = 11), OR 1.7 (0.5-5.1)

Hardell 2002

38

3.5* (1.8-6.8)

(n = 26) 3.7* (1.6-8.6)

(n = 7)  3.5* (0.7-16.8)

 

Christensen 2004

106

0.9 (0.51, 1.57)

(n = 17) (5-9 yrs)

0.86 (0.39-1.93)

(n = 2) 0.22 (0.04-1.11)

Uso Ipsilateral: OR = 0.68
(p=0.02)

Lonn 2004

148

1.0 0 (0.6-1.5)

(n = 30) (5-9 años) 1.1 (0.7-2.0)

(n = 11) 1.6 (0.7-3.6)

Ipsilateral use: all durations 1.1 (0.7-1.6); 5-9 yrs 1.4 (0.7-2.6); ≥ 10 yrs 3.1* (1.2-8.4)                            Contralateral use: all durations  0.9 (0.6-1.4); 5-9 yrs 0.9 (0.5-1.8); ≥ 10 yrs 0.9 (0.2-3.1)

Schoemaker 2005

678

0.9 (0.7-1.1)

(5-9 yrs) 0.9 (0.7-1.2)

1.1 (0.7-1.8)

Uso Ipsilateral: OR = 0.9; (0.7-1.1);para >10 años después del primer uso, OR = 1.3; (0.8-2.0); OR para >10 de vida de uso = 1.8 (1.1-3.1)

Hardell 2005

84

Anal. 4.2 (1.8-10)   Dig. 2.0 (1.05-3.8)

(n=11) 5-10 años 2.4 (n=23) 2.0

(n=7) 1.5 (0.6-3.6) (n=1) 0.5   8.4 (1.6-45) with a >15-year latency period

 

Takebayashi 2006

101

0.73 (0.43- 1.23)

(n=19) 1.09 (0.58-2.06)

(n=1)

Uso Ipsilateral: OR=0.9 (0.5-1.62)
Contralateral use: OR=0.93
(0.55-1.59)

Lahkola et al. 2006

605

 

1.07 (0.89-1.30)

 

Meta-analysis of 12 studies of long-term (>5 years) users

Klaeboe 2007

45

0.5 (0.2-1.0)

≥ 6 años: (n=7)       0.5 (0.2-1.4)

0

Uso Ipsilateral 0.7 (0.3-1.4)

Schlehofer 2007
97
0.67 (0.38-1.19)
(n=8) 0.53 (0.22-1.27)
0

OR for persistent noise exposure = 2.31* (1.15-4.66); for hay fever = 2.20* (1.09-4.45)

Hours 2007
109
0.92 (0.53-1.59)
0
0
Ipsilateral use 0.62 (0.32-1.20)
Mild 2007   1.12* (1.06-1.17)     Pooled analysis of 2 case-control studies. Analogue phone use
Hardell 2007 648     1.3 (0.6-2.8) Ipsilateral use 2.4* (1.1-5.3). Meta-analysis, including 8 studies on acoustic neuroma
Hardell 2008   0.9 (0.7-1.1)   1.3 (0.6-2.8) Ipsilateral use 2.4* (1.1-5.3). Updated meta-analysis, including 9 studies on acoustic neuroma
Kan 2008 922 0.96 (0.83-1.10)     Meta-analysis, including 3 studies on acoustic neuroma

Las cifras en paréntesis después de las OR representan el 95% de intervalos confiables.
Schuz (2006), en un estudio de Cohorte, encontró una proporción de incidencia estandardizada para el neuroma auditivo de 0.73 (95% CI = 0.50-1.03).

Hardell (2007) resumió los resultados de dos estudios de Cohorte y 16 estudios de control de casos de riesgo de tumor cerebral entre los usuarios a largo plazo de los celulares. Ellos concluyeron que:

"Los resultados de los estudios actuales sobre el uso de celulares por ≥ 10 años ofrecen un patrón consistente de incremento del riesgo del neuroma auditivo y el glioma. El riesgo es mayor para la exposición ipsilateral”.

C) Otros estudios

Agarwal (2008) - semen quality
Balik (2005) – ocular symptoms
Balikci (2005) - neurological symptoms and sensations
Bergamaschi (2004) - thyroid dysfunctions

Chia (2000) – Afecciones del sistema nervioso central
Cousin (2010a) public perception and base station siting
Cousin (2010b) cell phones and precautionary measures

Davidson and Lutman (2007) - audiovestibular system
Divan (2008) - prenatal and postnatal exposure and behavioral problems in children

Fejes I (2005) – Calidad del semen
Hallberg (2005) - Alzheimer's disease
Heinrich (2010) – general well-being young people
Hocking (1998) – Síntomas generales
Kim (2009) – environmental exposures pregnancy and child   
Kucer (2008) – ocular symptoms
Landgrebe (2009) – tinnitus and EMF hypersensitivity
Mazloomy Mahmoodabad (2010) – survey cell phone ownership
Milde-Bush (2010) - headaches

Oftedal (2000) – Síntomas generales
Rothman (1996) – Índices de mortalidad
Sandstrom ( 2001) – subjective symptoms
Schüz J (2009) - Central Nervous System Diseases

Westerman (2004) – Efectos en los nervios periféricos
Wilen (2003) – Síntomas generales   

Söderquist (2007) - cell phone use in children
Söderquist (2009) - blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier
Szyjkowska (2005)  – subjective symptoms
Thomas (2008a)  – acute and chronic symptoms in adults
Thomas (2008b)  – acute and chronic symptoms in children and adolescents (study description)
Thomas (2009) – behavioral problems in children and adolescents
Vrijheid (2010) – prenatal exposure and neurodevelopment
Wdowiak (2007) – semen quality

Referencias:

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Titulo
Mobile phone radiation and the risk of cancer: A review.                                    
Revista
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Autores
Abramson MJ, Benke GP, Dimitriadis C, Inyang IO, Sim MR, Wolfe RS, Croft RJ.
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Revista
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Autores
Agarwal, A.; Deepinder, F.; Sharma, R. K.; Ranga, G., and Li, J.
Titulo
Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study.
Revista
Fertil Steril. 2008 Jan; 89(1):124-8.

Autores
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Titulo
Epidemiologic evidence on mobile phones and tumor risk: a review.
Revista
Epidemiology 20(5):639-652.

Autores
Augner C, Hacker GW.
Titulo
Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters.
Revista
Indian J Occup Environ Med. (2009). 13(3):141-5.

Autores
Auvinen A, Hietanen M, Luukkonen R, Koskela R-S.    
Título

Brain tumors and salivary gland cancers among telephone users
Revista
Epidemiology 2002;13:356-359.
Ir al resumen> 

Autores
Auvinen A, Lahkola A, Feychting M, Swerdlow AJ, Johansen C, Tynes T on behalf of the author
Titulo
Response to commentary: Meningioma and mobile phone use—a collaborative case–control study in five North European countries
Revista
International Journal of EpidemiologyApril 22, 2009 Ahead of print.

Autores
Balik, H. H.; Turgut-Balik, D.; Balikci, K., and Ozcan, I. C.
Titulo
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Revista
Pathol Biol (Paris). 2005 Mar; 53(2):88-91.

Autores
Bell J, Finlay F, Baverstock A.
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Revista

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Autores
Balikci, K.; Cem Ozcan, I.; Turgut-Balik, D., and Balik, H. H.
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Revista
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Autores
Bergamaschi, A.; Magrini, A.; Ales, G.; Coppeta, L., and Somma, G.
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Are thyroid dysfunctions related to stress or microwave exposure (900 MHz)?
Revista
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Autore
Betts KS.
Titulo
Electromagnetic fields: Conference, hearing call up cell phone use.
Revista
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Autore
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Titulo
Childhood cancer and proximity to mobile phone masts - Editorial.
Revista
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Brain tumor epidemiology: Consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium.               
Revista               
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Journal
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Autores 
Chia S-E, Chia H-P, Tan J-S
Título

Prevalence of headache among handheld cellular telephone users in Singapore: A community study
Revista

Environmental Health Perspectives 2000; 108:1059-1062
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
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Título
Cellular telephone use and risk of acoustic neuroma
Revista
Am J Epidemiol 2004;159:277-283
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
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Ir al resumen>

Autores
Davidson, H. C. and Lutman, M. E.
Titulo
Survey of mobile phone use and their chronic effects on the hearing of a student population.
Revista
Int J Audiol. 2007 Mar; 46(3):113-8.

Autores
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Titulo
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Revista
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Revista
Epidemiology. 2008 Jul; 19(4):523-9.

Autores
Doré J-F, Boniol M, Telle-Lamberton M, and on behalf of the Afsset Working Group on Radiofrequencies
Titulo
Re: Time Trends in Brain Tumor Incidence Rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, 1974–2003.
Revista
J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2010).  102: 741-742.

Autores
Dreyer, N. A.; Loughlin, J. E., and Rothman, K. J.
Titulo
Cause-specific mortality in cellular telephone users
Revista
JAMA. 1999 Nov 17; 282(19):1814-6

Autores
Dreyfuss JH.
Titulo
Mixed results on link between cellular telephones and cancer.
Revista
CA Cancer J Clin. 60(1):5-6. Dec 16, 2010. Ahead of print.

Autores
Elliott P, Toledano MB, Bennett J, Beale L, de Hoogh K, Best N, Briggs DJ.
Titulo
Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study.
Journal
BMJ. Ahead of print. June 22, 2010.

Autores 
Fejes I, Zavaczki Z, Szollosi J, Koloszar S, et al.
Título
Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality.
Revista
Archives of Andrology 2005;51:385-393.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Gousias K, Markou M, Voulgaris S, Goussia A, Voulgari P, Bai M, Polyzoidis K, Kyritsis A, Alamanos Y.
Titulo
Descriptive epidemiology of cerebral gliomas in northwest Greece and study of potential predisposing factors, 2005-2007.
Revista
Neuroepidemiology. 2009. 33(2):89-95.

Autores
Hallberg Ö, Johansson O.
Titulo
Alzheimer's Mortality - why does it increase so fast in sparsely populated areas?
Revista
European Biology and Bioelectromagnetics 2005;1:225-246.
Go to summary >

Autores
Han YY, Kano H, Davis DL, Niranjan A, Lunsford LD.
Titulo
Cell phone use and acoustic neuroma: the need for standardized questionnaires and access to industry data.
Revista
Surg Neurol. 2009 Mar 26 Ahead of print.

Autores 
Hardell L, Nasman A, Pahlson A, Hallquist A, Mild KH.
Título
Use of cellular phones and the risk for brain tumours.
Revista
International Journal of Oncology 1999; 15:113-116
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell L, Nasman A, Pahlson A, Hallquist A.
Título
Case-control study on radiology work, medical x-ray investigations, and use of cellular telephones as risk factors for brain tumors.
Revista
Medscape General Medicine, May 4, 2000
(www.medscape.com/journal/MedGenMed) then search for “cellular telephones and brain tumors”.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Hardell, L.; Mild, K. H.; Pahlson, A., and Hallquist, A.
Titulo
Ionizing radiation, cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours.
Revista
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2001 Dec; 10(6):523-9.

Autores 
Hardell L, Hallquist A, Mild KH, Carlberg M, et al.
Título
Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours
Revista
Eur J Cancer Prev 2002;11:377-386
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlberg M
Título
Case-control study on the use of cellular and cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumours.
Revista
Int J Radiat Biol 2002;78:931-936.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell L, Mild KH, Carlberg M
Título
Further aspects on cellular and cordless phones and brain tumours.
Revista
Int J Oncol 2003;22:399-407
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell L, Mild KH, Sandstrom M, Carlberg M, et al.
Título
Vestibular schwannoma, tinnitus, and cellular telephones.
Revista
Neuroepidemiology 2003;22:124-129.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell L, Hallquist A, Mild KH, Carlberg M, et al. 
Título
No association between the use of cellular or cordless telephones and salivary gland
tumours.
Revista
Occup Environ Med 2004;61:675-679.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH.
Título
Use of cellular telephones and brain tumour risk in urban and rural areas
Revista
Occup Environ Med 2005a;62:390-394.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH.
Título
Case-control study in cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for acoustic neuroma or meningioma in patients diagnosed 2002-2003
Revista
Neuroepidemiology 2005b;25:120-128.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH.
Título
Pooled analysis of two case-control studies on the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003
Revista
Int J Oncol 2006a;28:509-518.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH.
Título
Case-control study of the association between the use of cellular and cordless telephones and malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 2000-2003
Revista
Environ Res 2006b;100:232-241.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH.
Título
Pooled analyses of two case-control studies on use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours diagnosed in 1997-2003.
Revista
Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2006c;published on-line March 16.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell, L.; Carlberg, M.; Ohlson, C. G.; Westberg, H.; Eriksson, M., and Hansson Mild, K.
Título
Use of cellular and cordless telephones and risk of testicular cancer.
Revista
International journal of andrology 2007 Apr; 30(2):115-22.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Hardell LO, Carlberg M, Söderquist F, Hansson Mild K, et al.
Título
Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours - increased risk associated with use for > 10 years.
Revista
Occup Environ Med published online 4 Apr 2007; doi:10.1136/oem.2006.029751
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Hardell, L.; Carlberg, M.; Soderqvist, F., and Hansson Mild, K.
Titulo
Meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and the association with brain tumours
Revista
Int J Oncol. 2008 May; 32(5):1097-103

Autores
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH.
Titulo
Epidemiological evidence for an association between use of wireless phones and tumor diseases.
Revista
Pathophys. Mar 5, 2009. Ahead of print.

Autores
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH.
Titulo
Epidemiological evidence for an association between use of wireless phones and tumor diseases.
revista
Pathophys. Mar 5, 2009. Ahead of print.

Autores
Hardell L, Carlberg M.
Titulo
Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk of brain tumours.
Revista
International Journal of Oncology. (2009). 35(1): 5-17.

Autores
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K.
Titulo
Mobile Phone Use and the Risk for Malignant Brain Tumors: A Case-Control Study on Deceased Cases and Controls.
Revista
Neuroepidemiology.35(2):109-114. Ahead of print. Jun 15, 2010.

Autores
Hardell L, Carlberg M, Söderqvist F, Hansson Mild K.
Titu;o
Re: Time Trends in Brain Tumor Incidence Rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, 1974–2003.
Revista
Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (2010).102: 740-741.

Autores
Hartikka H, Heinävaara S, Mäntylä R, Kähärä V, Kurttio P, Auvinen A.
Titulo
Mobile phone use and location of glioma: A case-case analysis
Revista
Bioelectromagnetics Jan 13, 2009 Ahead of print.

Autores
Heinrich S, Thomas S, Heumann C, von Kries R, Radon K.
Titulo
The impact of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields on chronic well-being in young people - A cross-sectional study based on personal dosimetry.
Revista
Environ Int. Jul 8, 2010. Ahead of print.

Autores 
Hepworth SJ, Schoemaker MJ, Muir KR, Swerdlow AJ, et al.
Título
Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in adults: case-control study.
Revista  
BMJ 2006 (published online 20 January)
 Ir al resumen>

Autores
Hutter HP, Moshammer H, Wallner P, Cartellieri M, Denk-Linnert DM, Katzinger M,  Ehrenberger K,  Kundi M.
Titulo
Tinnitus and mobile phone use.
Revista
Occup Environ Med. Ahead of print June 23, 2010.

Autor 
Hocking B
Título
Preliminary report: Symptoms associated with mobile phone use.
Revista
Occup Med 1998;48:357-360.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Hocking B
Titulo
Japanese mobile phone study.
Revista
British Journal of Cancer 98:1879.

Autores
Hours M, Bernard M, Montestrucq L, Arslan M, et al.
Titulo
Téléphone mobile, risque de tumeurs cérébrales et du nerf vestibulaacoustique: l'étude cas-témojns INTERPHONE en France. (Cell phones and risk of brain and acoustic nerve tumours: the French INTERPHONE case-control study.
Revista
Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique 2007, doi: 10.10.16/j.respe.2007.06.002
Ir al resumen y>

Autores 
Hutter H-P, Moshammer H, Wallner P, Kundi M.
Título
Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations.
Revista
Occup Environ Med 2006;63:307-313.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Inskip PD, Tarone RE, Hatch EE, Wilcosky TC, et al.
Título
Cellular-telephone use and brain tumors
Revista
New England Journal of Medicine 2001;344:79-86
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Inskip PD, Hoover RN, Devesa SS.
Titulo
Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States.
Revista
Neuro Oncol. Jul 16, 2010 Ahead of print.

Autores
INTERPHONE Study Group: Cardis E, Deltour I, Vrijheid M, et al.
Titulo
Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study.
Revista
Int J Epidemiol. (2010). 39(3):675-94.

Autores
Jacobson, J.
Titulo
Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?
Revista
American Journal of Nursing  (2010). 110(9):14-15.

Autores 
Johansen C, Boice JD, McLaughlin JK, Olsen JH.
Título
Cellular telephones and cancer - a nationwide cohort study in Denmark.
Revista
J National Cancer Institute 2001;93:203-207.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Johansen C, Boice JD, McLaughlin JK, Olsen JH.
Título
Mobile phones and malignant melanoma of the eye
Revista
Brit J Cancer 2002;86:348-349.
Ir al resumen>

Authores
Kan P, Simonsen SE, Lyon JL, Kestle JRW.
Titulo
Cellular phone use and brain tumor: a meta-analysis.
Revista
J Neurooncol. 2008 Jan; 86(1):71-8
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Kaufman DW, Anderson TE, Issaragrisil S.
Titulo
Risk factors for leukemia in Thailand.
Revista
Ann Hematol. 2009 Mar 18 Ahead of print

Autores
Khurana V G, Teo C, Kundi M, Hardell L, and Carlberg M.
Titulo
Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data.
Revista
Surg Neurol. 2009 Mar 26 Ahead of print.

Autores
Kim BM, Ha M, Park HS, Lee BE, Kim YJ, Hong YC, Kim Y, Chang N, Roh YM, Kim BN, Oh SY, Ha EH, MOCEH Study Group.
Titulo
The Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study.
Revista
Eur J Epidemiol. (2009). 24(9):573-83.

Autores 
Klaeboe L, Blaasaas KG, Tynes T.
Título
Use of mobile phones in Norway and risk of intracranial tumours.
Revista
Eur J Cancer Prev 2007;16:158-164
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Kristiansen IS, Elstein AS, Gyrd-Hansen D, Kildemoes EW, Nielsen JB.
Titulo
Radiation from mobile phone systems: Is it perceived as a threat to people’s health?
Revista
Bioelectromagnetics. Mar 23, 2009. Ahead of print.

Autores
Kristiansen IS, Elstein AS, Gyrd-Hansen D, Kildemoes EW, Nielsen JB.
Titulo
Radiation from mobile phone systems: Is it perceived as a threat to people’s health?
Revista
Bioelectromagnetics. Mar 23, 2009. Ahead of print.

Autores
Kucer, N
Titulo
Some ocular symptoms experienced by users of mobile phones.
Revista
Electromagn Biol Med. 2008; 27(2):205-9.

Autores
Kundi M. 
Titulo
 What can be learned from the Japanese study of mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma?
Revista
Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2008(65):428.

Autore
Kundi M.
Titulo
Mobile Phone Use and Brain Cancer: Is the Association Biased?
Revista
Neuroepidemiology. 35(2):115-116. Ahead of print. Jun 15, 2010.

Autores
Lahkola, A.; Tokola, K., and Auvinen, A.
Titulo
Meta-analysis of mobile phone use and intracranial tumors
Revista
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2006 Jun; 32(3):171-7

Autores 
Lahkola A, Auvinen A, Raitanen J, Schoemaker MJ, et al.
Título
Mobile phone use and risk of glioma in 5 North European countries.
Revista
Int J Cancer 2007;120:1769-1775.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Lahkola A, Salminen T, Raitanen J, Heinävaara S, Schoemaker M, Christensen HC, Feychting M, Johansen C, Klæboe L, Lönn S, Swerdlow A, Tynes T, Auvinen A.
Titulo
 Meningioma and mobile phone use--a collaborative case-control study in five North European countries.
Revista
Int J Epidemiol. Aug 2, 2008 Ahead of print.

Autores
Lahkola A, Salminen T, Raitanen J, Heinävaara S, Schoemaker M, Christensen HC, Feychting M, Johansen C, Klæboe L, Lönn S, Swerdlow A, Tynes T, Auvinen A.
Titulo
 Meningioma and mobile phone use--a collaborative case-control study in five North European countries.
Revista
Int J Epidemiol. Aug 2, 2008 Ahead of print.

Autores
Lehrer S, Green S, Stock RG.
Titulo
Association between number of cell phone contracts and brain tumor incidence in nineteen U.S. States.
Revista
J Neurooncol. Jun 30 2010. Ahead of print.

Autores
Landgrebe M; Frick U; Hauser S; Hajak G, Langguth B.
Titulo
Association of tinnitus and electromagnetic hypersensitivity: hints for a shared pathophysiology?
Revista
PLoS ONE. 2009; 4(3):e5026.

Autores 
Linet MS, Taggart T, Severson RK, Cerham JR, et al.
Título
Cellular telephones and non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Revista
Int J Cancer 2006;119:2382-2388.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Linet MS, Inskip PD.
Titulo
Cellular (mobile) telephone use and cancer risk.
Revista
Rev Environ Health. 2010 25(1):51-5.

Autores 
Lonn S, Ahlbom A, Hall P, Feychting M.
Título
Mobile phone use and the risk of acoustic neuroma.
Revista
Epidemiology 2004;15:653-659.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Lonn S, Ahlbom A, Hall P, Feychting M, and the Swedish Interphone study group.
Título
Long-term phone use and brain tumor risk.
Revista
Am J Epidemiol 2005;161:526-535.

Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Lonn S, Ahlbom A, Christensen HC, Johansen C, et al.
Título
Mobile phone use and risk of parotid gland tumor.
Revista
Am J Epidemiol: Published on-line July 3, 2006.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Mazloomy Mahmoodabad SS, Barkhordari A, Nadrian H, Moshiri O, Yavari MT.
Titulo
Survey of ownership and use of mobile phones among medical science students in Yazd.
Revista
Pak J Biol Sci. 2009. 12(21):1430-3.

Autores
Mead MN.
Titulo
Cancer: strong signal for cell phone effects.
Revista
Environ Health Perspect. 2008;16(10):A422.

Autores
Merzenich H, Schmiedel S, Bennack S, Bruggemeyer H, Philipp J, Blettner M, Schuz J.
Titulo
Childhood Leukemia in Relation to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in the Vicinity of TV and Radio Broadcast Transmitters.
Revista
American Journal of Epidemiology 168(10) Ahead of print October 3, 2008 DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwn230.

Autores
Mild, K. H.; Hardell, L., and Carlberg, M.
Titulo
Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003
Revista
Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2007; 13(1):63-71.

Autores
Milde-Busch A, von Kries R, Thomas S, Heinrich S, Straube A, Radon K.
Titulo
The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.
Revista
BMC Neurol. Feb 9, 2010. 10(1):12. Ahead of print.

Autores
Milham S.
Titulo
Letter to Editor Meningioma and mobile phone use.
Revista
Int J Epidemiol. Apr 22, 2009 Ahead of print.

Autores
Morgan L.
Titulo
Comment: Meningioma and mobile phone use—a collaborative case–control study in five North European countries.
Revista
Int J Epidemio April 22, 2009Ahead of print.

Autores 
Muscat JE, Malkin MG, Thompson ST, Shore RE, et al.
Título
Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of brain cancer
Revista
JAMA 2000;284:30001-3007
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Muscat JE, Malkin MG, Shore RE, Thompson S, et al.
Título
Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of acoustic neuroma.
Revista
Neurology 2002;58:1304-1306.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Myung SK, Ju W, McDonnell DD, Lee YJ, Kazinets G, Cheng CT, Moskowitz JM.
Titulo
Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: A meta-analysis.
Revista
J Clin Oncol. Ahead of print Oct 13, 2009.

Autores 
Oftedal G, Wilen J, Sandstrom M, Mild KH
Título
Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use.
Revista
Occupational Medicine 2000; 50:237-245.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Pawl R.
Titulo
Cell phones more dangerous than cigarettes.
Revista
 Surgical Neurology 2008;70(5):445-446.

Autores
Peres J.
Titulo
One conclusion emerges from Interphone study: controversy will continue.
Revista
J Natl Cancer Inst. (2010). 02(13):928-31.

Autores
Rothman KJ.
Title

Health effects of mobile telephones.
Journal
Epidemiology Comment on: (2009).  20(5):653-655.

Autores
Mild, K. H.; Hardell, L., and Carlberg, M.
Titulo
Pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies on the use of mobile and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003
Revista
Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2007; 13(1):63-71.

Autores 
Santini R, Santini P, le Ruz P, Danze JM, et al.
Título
Survey study of people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations
Revista
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 2003;22:41-49.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Saracci S, Samet J.
Titulo
Commentary: Call me on my mobile phone...or better not?—a look at the INTERPHONE study results.
Revista
International Journal of Epidemiology. (2010). 39(3):695-698.

Autores
Schlehofer B, Schlaefer K, Blettner M, Berg G, et al.
Titulo
Environmental risk factors for sporadic acoustic neuroma (Interphone Study Group, Germany).
revista
Eur J Cancer 2007;43:1741-1747.

Ir al resumen >

Autores 
Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Ahlbom A, Auvinen A, et al.
Título
Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone case-control study in five North European countries.
Revista
British Journal of Cancer, published on-line August 30, 2005.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ.
Titulo
Risk of pituitary tumors in cellular phone users: A case-control study.
Revista
Epidemiology. Mar 9, 2009 Ahead of print.

Autores
Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ.
Titulo
Risk of pituitary tumors in cellular phone users: A case-control study.
Journal
Epidemiology. Mar 9, 2009 Ahead of print.

Autores 
Schuz J, Bohler E, Berg G, Schlehofer B, et al.
Título
Cellular phones, Cordless phones, and the risks of glioma and meningioma (Interphone study group, Germany)
Revista
Am J Epidemiol 2006a;163:512-520.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Schuz J, Bohler E, Schlehofer B, Berg K, et al.
Título
Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from base stations of DECT cordless phones and the risk of glioma and meningioma (Interphone study group, Germany).
Revista
Radiat Res 2006b;166:116-119.
Ir al resumen>

Autores 
Schuz J, Jacobsen R, Olsen JH, Boice JD Jr., et al.
Título
Cellular telephone use and cancer risk: Update of a nationwide Danish cohort
Revista
J Natl Cancer Inst 2006d;98:1707-1713.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Schüz J, Waldemar G, Olsen JH, Johansen C
Titulo
Risks for Central Nervous System Diseases among Mobile Phone Subscribers: A Danish Retrospective Cohort Study.
Revista
PLoS ONE 2009;4(2): e4389. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004389.

Autores
Söderquist F, Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild KH.
Titulo
Ownersship and use of wireless telephones: a population-based study of Swedish children aged 7-14 years.
Revista
BMC Public Health 2007, 7:105 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-105.
Ir al resumen >

Autores
Soderqvist F, Carlberg M, Hardell L.
Titulo
Mobile and cordless telephones, serum transthyretin and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a cross-sectional study.
Revista
Environ Health. 2009 Apr 21 Ahead of print 8(1):19.

Autores
Spinelli V, Chinot O, Cabaniols C, Giorgi R, Alla P, Lehucher-Michel MP.
Titulo
Occupational and environmental risk factors for brain cancer: a pilot case-control study in France. 
Revista
La presse Médicale. Dec 4, 2009. Ahead of print.

Autores
Stang A, Schmidt-Pokrzywniak A, Lash TL, Lommatzsch PK, Taubert G, Bornfeld N, Jöckel K.
Titulo
Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Uveal Melanoma: Results of the Risk Factors for Uveal Melanoma Case-Control Study.
Revista
Journal of the National Cancer Institute J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Jan 21; 101(2):120-3.

Autores
Szyjkowska, A.; Bortkiewicz, A.; Szymczak, W., and Makowiec-Dabrowska, T.
Titulo
[Subjective symptoms related to mobile phone use--a pilot study].
Revista
Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2005 Oct; 19(112):529-32.

Autores 
Takebayashi T, Akiba S, Kikuchi Y, Taki M, et al.
Título
Mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma risk in Japan.
Revista
Occup Environ Med: Published online 15 August 2006.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Takebayashi, T.; Varsier, N.; Kikuchi, Y.; Wake, K.; Taki, M.; Watanabe, S.; Akiba, S., and Yamaguchi, N.
Titulo
Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case-control study.
Revista
Br J Cancer. 2008 Feb 12; 98(3):652-9.

Autores
Thomas, S.; Kuhnlein, A.; Heinrich, S.; Praml, G.; Nowak, D.; von Kries, R., and Radon, K.
Titulo
Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: a cross-sectional study based on dosimetry.
Revista
Bioelectromagnetics. 2008a Sep; 29(6):463-70.

Autores
Thomas, S.; Kuhnlein, A.; Heinrich, S.; Praml, G.; von Kries, R., and Radon, K.
Titulo
Exposure to mobile telecommunication networks assessed using personal dosimetry and well-being in children and adolescents: the German MobilEe-study.
Revista
Environ Health. 2008; 7:54.

Autores
Thomas S, Heinrich S, Kühnlein A, Radon K
Titulo
The association between socioeconomic status and exposure to mobile telecommunication networks in children and adolescents.
Revista
Bioelectromagnetics. Jul 13, 2009 Ahead of print.

Autores
Thomas S, Heinrich S, von Kries R, Radon K.
Titulo
Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and behavioural problems in Bavarian children and adolescents.
Revista
Eur J Epidemiol. Dec 4, 2009 Ahead of print.

Autores
Thun MJ.
Titulo
Jury still out on cell phone - Cancer connection.
Revista
Cancer 116(9):2067 April 20, 2010 Ahead of print.

Autores
van Kleef E, Fischer AR, Khan M, Frewer LJ.
Titulo
Risk and Benefit Perceptions of Mobile Phone and Base Station Technology in Bangladesh.
Revista
Risk Anal. April 8, 2010 Ahead of print.

Autores
Vrijheid M, Richardson L, Armstrong BK, Auvinen A, Berg G, Carroll M, Chetrit A, Deltour I, Feychting M, Giles GG, Hours M, Iavarone I, Lagorio S, Lönn S, McBride M, Parent ME, Sadetzki S, Salminen T, Sanchez M, Schlehofer B, Schüz J, Siemiatycki J, Tynes T, Woodward A, Yamaguchi N, Cardis E. (2009).
Titulo
Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use.
Revista
Ann Epidemiol 19(1):33-41.

Autores
Vrijheid M, Martinez D, Forns J, Guxens M, Julvez J, Ferrer M, Sunyer J.
Titulo
Prenatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use and Neurodevelopment at 14 Months.
Revista
Epidemiology. Jan 16, 2010 Ahead of print.

Autores 
Warren HG, Prevatt AA, Daly KA, Antonelli PJ.
Título
Cellular telephone use and risk of intratemporal facial nerve tumour
Revista
Laryngoscope 2003;113:663-667.
Ir al resumen>

Autores
Wdowiak, A.; Wdowiak, L., and Wiktor, H.
Titulo
Evaluation of the effect of using mobile phones on male fertility.
Revista
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2007; 14(1):169-72.

Autores 
Wilen J, Sandstrom M, Mild KJ
Título
Subjective symptoms among mobile phone users - a consequence of absorption of radiofrequency fields?
Revista
Bioelectromagnetics (2003);24:152-159.
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