Other - General Health Effects, including Hypersensitivity


The list of alleged health outcomes associated with RF includes headaches, memory loss, fatigue, and other subjective outcomes. To date, none of these health concerns has been linked causally to RF exposure. Only five of the following papers (Hietanen, Koivisto, Regel, Wilen, Zwamborn) used an experimental design, with control subjects who were blinded as to whether they were being exposed to RF radiation. Zwamborn (2003) included a group of people who had complained of symptoms that they attributed to radiation from base station antennas. This paper demonstrated increased symptoms in the exposed state compared with sham exposure. A study that attempted to replicate that of Zwamborn failed to confirm an effect of UTMS base station-like exposure on well-being (Regel, 2006). This result held true for both hypersensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Koivisto (2001) and Hietanen (2002), however, found no increase in symptoms in subjects exposed to radiation from cell phones. Hietanen specifically studied subjects who described themselves as being hypersensitive to RF fields from cell phones. Wilen (2006) used subjects who complained of symptoms specifically related to mobile phone use. No significant differences related to RF exposure were detected, in comparison with sham exposure. There was, however, some evidence of differences in autonomic nervous system regulation in the cases compared with the controls (unrelated to RF exposure). Rubin (2006) also tested people who reported that they developed symptoms during a cell phone call. Although the “sensitive” individuals reported symptoms during exposure, there was no difference between the cell phone exposure and sham exposure. Nor were these individuals able to differentiate between the different exposure conditions. Schuz (2006) offered a self-notification system in a region of Germany for 18 months, and 192 persons reported complaints that they attributed to electromagnetic fields. 56% classified themselves as electromagnetic hypersensitive. Eltiti (2007) developed and validated a questionnaire that can be used in studies of electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
The same group (Eltiti, 2007a) in a double-blind study found that short-term exposure to a typical GSM base-station-like signal did not affect wellbeing or physiological function in sensitive or control individuals.

The World Health Organization convened a Workshop on Electrical Hypersensitivity in Prague in October 2004. The report on this Workshop can be found on the EMF-NET website.

A report of a single case documents symptoms, including headaches, in a man exposed to RF radiation of weak power from an antenna (Hocking et al., 2001).

Other research that studied general health effects can be found in the "Research - Epidemiology" section (Chia 2000; Hillert 2002; Navarro 2003; Oftedal 2000; Santini 2003). Subjective or 'soft' outcomes are very difficult to evaluate in epidemiological studies because they are difficult to validate with an objective medical test, are ubiquitous and non-specific, and are therefore subject to measurement bias.

Authors
Atay T, Aksoy BA, Aydogan NH, Baydar ML, Yildiz M, Ozdemir R.
Title
Effect of electromagnetic field induced by radio frequency waves at 900 to 1800 MHz on bone mineral density of iliac bone wings.
Journal
J Craniofac Surg. (2009). 20(5):1556-60.

Authors
Augner C, Florian M, Pauser G, Oberfeld G, Hacker GW.
Title
GSM base stations: Short-term effects on well-being.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics Ahead of print 19 Sep 2008.

Author
Bamiou DE, Ceranic B, Cox R, Watt H, Chadwick P, Luxon LM.
Title
Mobile phone use effects on peripheral audiovestibular function: A case-control study.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 2008; 29:108-117.

Authors
Blettner M, Schlehofer B, Breckenkamp J, Kowall B, Schmiedel S, Reis U, Potthoff P, Schuez J, Berg-Beckhoff G.
Title
Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: Phase 1: A population-based cross-sectional study in Germany.
Journal
Occup Environ Med. Ahead of print November 18, 2008.

Authors
Costa A, Branca V, Minoia C, Pigatto PD, Guzzi G.
Title
Comment on: Heavy metals exposure and electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
Journal
Sci Total Environ. 408(20):4919-20.

Authors
Costa A, Branca V, Minoia C, Pigatto PD, Guzzi G.
Title
Comment on: Heavy metals exposure and electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
Journal
Sci Total Environ. 408(20):4919-20.

Authors
Dahmen N, Ghezel-Ahmadi D, Engel A.
Title
Blood laboratory findings in patients suffering from self-perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS)
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics Mar 3, 2009 Ahead of print.

Authors
Dahmen N, Ghezel-Ahmadi D, Engel A.
Title
Blood laboratory findings in patients suffering from self-perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS)
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics Mar 3, 2009 Ahead of print.

Authors
Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, Olsen J.
Title
Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Cell Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children. 
Journal
Epidemiology. Ahead of print 19(4) July 2008.

Author
Eltiti S, Wallace D, Zougkou K, Russo R, et al.
Title
Development and evaluation of the electromagnetic hypersensitivity questionnaire.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 2007;28:137-151
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Authors
Eltiti S, Wallace D, Ridgewell A, Zougkou K, et al.
Title
Does short-term exposure to mobile phone base Station signals increase symptoms in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields? A double-blind randomized provocation study.
Journal
Environ Health Perspect 2007a;115:1603-1608.
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Author
Frey A
Title
Headaches from cellular telephones: are they real and what are the implications?
Journal
Environ Health Perspect 1998;106:101-103.
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Authors
Furubayashi T, Ushiyama A, Terao Y, Mizuno Y, Shirasawa K, Pongpaibool P,  Simba AY, Wake K, Nishikawa M, Miyawaki K, Yasuda A, Uchiyama M, Yamashita HK, Masuda H, Hirota S, Takahashi M, Okano T, Inomata-Terada S, Sokejima S, Maruyama E, Watanabe S, Taki M, Ohkubo M, Ugawa Y.
Title
Effects of short-term W-CDMA mobile phone base station exposure on women with or without mobile phone related symptoms.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics Ahead of print 8 Sep 2008.

Authors
Ghezel-Ahmadi D, Engel A, Weidemann J, Budnik LT, Baur X, Frick U, Hauser S, Dahmen N.
Title
Heavy metal exposure in patients suffering from electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
Journal
Sci Total Env. Nov 22, 2009 Ahead of print.

Author
Ghezel-Ahmadi D.
Title
Response to Costa et al. Heavy metals exposure and electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
Journal
Sci Total Environ. (2010). 408(20):4921.

Authors
Goldwein O, Aframian DJ.
Title
The influence of handheld mobile phones on human parotid gland secretion.
Journal
Oral Dis. Ahead of print Sep 8, 2009.


Author
Hietanen M, Hamalainen A-M, Husman T.
Title
Hypersensitivity symptoms associated with exposure to cellular telephones: No causal link.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 2002;23:264-270.
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Authors
Hillert L, Åkerstedt T, Lowden A, Wiholm C, Kuster N, Ebert S, Boutry C, Moffat SD, Berg M, Arnetz BB.
Title
The effects of 884 MHz GSM wireless communication signals on headache and other symptoms: An experimental provocation study.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 2008;29(3);185 – 196.

Authors
Hintzsche H, Stopper H.
Title
Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users.
Journal
Toxicol Lett. Dec 24, 2009 Ahead of print.

Authors
Huttunen P, Hänninen O, Myllylä R.
Title
FM-radio and TV tower signals can cause spontaneous hand movements near moving RF reflector.
Journal
Pathophysiology. Mar 5, 2009 Ahead of print.

Author
Jauchem JR.
Title
Effects of low-level radio-frequency (3 kHz to 300 GHz) energy on human cardiovascular, reproductive, immune, and other systems: A review of the recent literature.
Journal
Int J Hyg Environ Health. Epub ahead of print August 9, 2007

Author
Khan MM.
Title
Adverse effects of excessive mobile phone use.
Journal
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. (2008);21(4):289-93.

Author
Jauchem JR.
Title
Effects of low-level radio-frequency (3 kHz to 300 GHz) energy on human cardiovascular, reproductive, immune, and other systems: A review of the recent literature.
Journal
Int J Hyg Environ Health. Epub ahead of print August 9, 2007

Author
Khan MM.
Title
Adverse effects of excessive mobile phone use.
Journal
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. (2008);21(4):289-93.

Author
Koivisto M, Haarala C, Krause CM, Revonsuo A, et al.
Title
GSM phone signal does not produce subjective symptoms.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 2001;22:212-215.
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Authors
Kwon MS, Huotilainen M, Shestakova A, Kujala T, Näätänen R, Hämäläinen H.
Title
No effects of mobile phone use on cortical auditory change-detection in children: An ERP study.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics Ahead of print. Sep 21, 2009.

Authors
Johansson A, Forsgren S, Stenberg B, Wilén J, Kalezic N, Sandström M.
Title
No effect of mobile phone-like RF exposure on patients with atopic dermatitis
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 31 Jan 2008 Ahead of print.

Authors
Landgrebe M, Frick U, Hauser S, Langguth B, Rosner R, Hajak G, Eichhammer P.
Title
Cognitive and neurobiological alterations in electromagnetic hypersensitive patients: results of a case-control study.
Journal
Psychol Med. Ahead of print 26 Mar 2008;1-11. doi:10.1017/S0033291708003097

Authors
Nam KC, Lee JH, Noh HW, Cha EJ, Kim NH, Kim DW.
Title
Hypersensitivity to RF fields emitted from CDMA cellular phones: A provocation study.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics. Jun 23, 2009 Ahead of print.

Authors
Nieto-Hernandez R, Rubin GJ, Cleare AJ, Weinman JA, Wessely S.
Title
Can evidence change belief? Reported mobile phone sensitivity following individual feedback of an inability to discriminate active from sham signals.
Journal
J Psychosom Res 65(5):453-460. Aug 15, 2008 Ahead of print.

Authors
Nieto-Hernandez R, Rubin GJ, Cleare AJ, Weinman JA, Wessely S.
Title
Can evidence change belief? Reported mobile phone sensitivity following individual feedback of an inability to discriminate active from sham signals.
Journal
J Psychosom Res 65(5):453-460. Aug 15, 2008 Ahead of print.

Authors
Nieto-Hernandez R, Williams J, Cleare AJ, Landau S, Wessely S, Rubin GJ.
Title
Can exposure to a terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA)-like signal cause symptoms? A randomised double-blind provocation study.
Journal
Occup Environ Med. Sep 23, 2010. Ahead of print.

Authors
Regel SJ, Negovetic S, Roosli M, Berdinas V, et al.
Title
UMTS base station-like exposure, well-being, and cognitive performance.
Journal
Environ Health Perspect 2006;114:1270-1275.
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Author
Röösli M.
Title
Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure and non-specific symptoms of ill health: A systematic review.
Journal
Environ Res. Ahead of print 20 Mar 2008

Authors
Rubin GJ, Hahn G, Everitt BS, Cleare AJ, et al.
Title
Are some participants sensitive to mobile phone signals? Within participants double blind randomised provocation study.
Journal
BMJ 2006;332:886-889.
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Authors
Rubin GJ, Cleare AJ, Wessely S.
Title
 Psychological factors associated with self-reported sensitivity to mobile phones.
Journal
J Psychosom Res 2008; 64(1):1-12.

Authors
Nam KC, Lee JH, Noh HW, Cha EJ, Kim NH, Kim DW.
Title
Hypersensitivity to RF fields emitted from CDMA cellular phones: A provocation study.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics. Jun 23, 2009 Ahead of print.

Authors
Nieto-Hernandez R, Rubin GJ, Cleare AJ, Weinman JA, Wessely S.
Title
Can evidence change belief? Reported mobile phone sensitivity following individual feedback of an inability to discriminate active from sham signals.
Journal
J Psychosom Res 65(5):453-460. Aug 15, 2008 Ahead of print.

Authors
Sánchez-Martínez M, Otero A.
Title
Factors Associated with Cell Phone Use in Adolescents in the Community of Madrid (Spain).
Journal
Cyberpsychol Behav.  Dec 10 2008 Ahead of print.

Authors
Soo Kwon M, Koivisto M, Laine M, Hämäläinen H.
Title
Perception of the electromagnetic field emitted by a mobile phone.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 2008;29:154-159.

Authors
Schuz J, Petters C, Egle UT, Jansen B, et al.
Title
The “Mainzer-Wachhund”: results from a watchdog project on self-reported health complaints attributed to exposure to electromagnetic fields.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 2006;27:280-287.
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Authors
Söderqvist F, Carlberg M, Hardell L. (2008).
Title
Use of wireless telephones and self-reported health symptoms: a population-based study among Swedish adolescents aged 15-19 years.
Journal
Environ Health. 7:18.

Authors
Söderqvist F, Carlberg M, Hardell L.
Title
Use of wireless telephones and serum S100B levels: A descriptive cross-sectional study among healthy Swedish adults aged 18-65 years.
Journal
Sci Total Environ. Ahead of print November 4, 2008.

Authors
Thomas S, Kühnlein A, Heinrich S, Praml G, Nowak D, von Kries R, Radon K.
Title
Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: A cross-sectional study based on dosimetry.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics. Ahead of print 4 April 2008.


Authors
Wilen J, Johansson A, Kalezic N, Lyskov E, et al.
Title
Psychological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms.
Journal
Bioelectromagnetics 2006;27:204-214.
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Authors
Zinelis SA.
Title
Reply to Eltiti: Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals.
Journal
Environ Health Perspect. Epub ahead of print. January 25, 2008


Authors:
Zwamborn APM, Vossen SHJA, van Leersum BJAM, Ouwens MA, Makel WN, for the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO).
Title
Effects of global communication system radio-frequency fields on well being and cognitive functions of human subjects with and without subjective complaints.
Journal
TNO-report (2003). FEL-03-C148
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